among those who do not live in the household. Contrary to the expectations of theory of
enforceable trust but consistent with the insurance hypothesis, prior social relationships lead
to increased embeddedness in activities.
(Table Six about here)
The surveyed enterprises operate in a wide variety of fields. Most are small; some are
quite large. Accordingly, those working in those businesses engaged in a very diverse set of
tasks. We found a total of 156 separate simplified job descriptions.7 Table Six shows the
simplified job descriptions for family members in the household and for other employees that
were held by more than one person in each category. While some of the job descriptions are
quite specific, such as loading and unloading rice, several are quite broad with many workers
being described simply as “worker” or “assistant.” Sales and making something were the
most common general functions. Both descriptions mask tremendous differences in the
actual work across sectors, however. In some businesses sales work requires little more than
being present on the premises. In others, extensive knowledge of production techniques and
cost are needed. Despite the several welders, mechanics, and technicians, many of the job
descriptions carry little indication of a high level of skill. Some of the job descriptions
connote carrying responsibility, such as the supervision of others or the handling of funds.
Those job descriptions seem to be more heavily represented among the family members.
That appearance is only partially correct.
(Table Seven about here)
Table Seven shows that the jobs carrying responsibility are concentrated quite heavily
among the owners and their spouses. Of course, these brief job descriptions do not capture
7 Our job descriptions modify only minor spelling and phrasing variations in the original responses. They include all denotations and connotations of tasks. The bottom of Table Five contains categorizations of the tasks performed by employees.