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CMAG

Notes

18

Major Depression

According to the DSM-IV regarding Major Depression, the condition must have been evident for at least two weeks and must have five of the following symptoms:45

  • A depressed mood for most of the day, almost every day

  • A loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activities, almost every day

  • Changes in weight and appetite

  • Sleep disturbance

  • A decrease in physical activity

  • Fatigue and loss of energy

  • Feelings of worthlessness or excessive feelings of guilt

  • Poor concentration levels

  • Suicidal thoughts

Bipolar Disorder

Individuals with Bipolar Disorder may have been diagnosed as having Major Depression until there is a manic episode. There are times that misdiagnosis occurs simply because there are overlapping symptoms. The DSM-IV identifies the following as criteria for a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder.45

  • The individual’s mood must be elevated, expansive, or irritable.

  • The mood must be different from the individual’s usual affective state during a period of stability.

  • A marked change over a significant period of time must be present.

  • Mood very elevated and grandiose ideas are present.

  • May become very irritated and appear to be “arrogant” in manner.

  • At least three of the following symptoms must have been present to a significant degree:

    • Inflated sense of self-importance

    • Decreased need for sleep

    • Increased talkativeness

    • Flight of ideas or racing thoughts

    • Easily distracted

    • Increased goal-directed activity

    • Excessive involvement in activities that can bring pleasure but may have disastrous consequences (e.g., sexual affairs and spending excessively)

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