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officials and formal systems to be held accountable. An open and public process also minimizes an individual's perceived risk of experiencing negative consequences for speaking out.

e.County and local officials and leaders should actively support the development and maintenance of organized responses to domestic violence within diverse informal systems, including the development, printing, and distribution of information on domestic violence and available resources to underserved communities, and should encourage the coordination of these efforts in conjunction with local domestic violence service providers.

While formal systems within a community have a primary responsibility to respond effectively to domestic violence, they are unlikely to fully meet all of the widely varying needs of those affected. In recognition of this reality, community groups and organizations should be supported in their initiatives to develop assistance that either fills gaps in existing formal services or provides what may be a preferable alternative for some victims. For example, in many communities, cultural or religious groups have established support groups for battered women from within those groups. The active support of county and local officials and leaders, along with representatives of the formal systems, is important in expanding the options available to victims and in creating an effective coordinated community response.

f.County and local officials and leaders should promote and actively facilitate the provision of domestic violence training for community youth leaders.

While effective intervention in domestic violence cases is considered secondary prevention, it also contributes greatly to primary prevention efforts by modeling actions, based on attitudes and beliefs, that reinforce a zero tolerance ethic. Much more can be done, however, to instill in children and youth attitudes and beliefs that not only reject the beliefs that support men's use of controlling tactics against their intimate partners, but that also promote gender equity.

There are typically many community members who come in regular contact with children through youth clubs, after

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