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and abusers routinely attempt to punish victims for seeking help, or manipulate them into "non-compliance" with the legal system. Therefore, it is important for the court to intervene authoritatively at the earliest possible moment, and to establish the seriousness of its intention to protect victims and other witnesses.

If it is at all possible, when there has been a domestic violence-related arrest, law enforcement should not set desk bail or issue appearance tickets. To prevent the need for pre-arraignment release, counties that lack temporary holding facilities should pursue developing procedures for temporary lockup with Sheriff's Departments or neighboring police agencies.

At arraignment, judges have the responsibility of making bail determinations, coupled with the responsibility of making safety-related decisions involving the specific terms of orders of protection and establishment of conditions of pretrial release.

e.Criminal justice agencies, probation and other community corrections professionals, and courts should ensure that alleged violations of orders of protection and violations of conditions of release, probation, or parole, are prosecuted with the same vigor as other crimes.

The integrity of the system is protected when courts act to ensure compliance with orders. Regardless of the court of issuance, every violation of an order of protection or other court order issued in a domestic violence-related proceeding should result in a charge of criminal contempt in the first or second degree, and separate charges for any associated crime. Law enforcement, prosecutorial and judicial responses to valid out-of-state orders of protection must provide full faith and credit and consistent enforcement, as required by the Violence Against Women Act, 18 U.S.C. §2265.

f.Courts, criminal justice agencies, and community corrections professionals should develop strategies for effectively sanctioning domestic violence offenders.

All interventions should reinforce an offender's accountability for his behavior, and  the court's intention that the offender stop the use of violence and coercion in his intimate relationships.

Appropriate graduated sanctions should be used in response to domestic violence offenses. For first offenses and at the misdemeanor level, courts should make effective use of supervised probation, day reporting, restitution, community service, and weekend jail. For cases involving physical

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