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Foreword

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) esti- mates that 230,000 young workers under the age of 18 suffer work-related injuries in the United States each year. Young and new workers have a high risk for work-related injury compared with more experienced workers. Occupational safety and health training remains a fundamental element of hazard control in the workplace, and there is great potential to reduce these incidents through pre-employment training. Effective pre-employment training should include realistic environments and hands-on exercises. However, NIOSH recommends that actual employment in the electrical trades or any of the other construction trades be delayed until individuals reach the minimum age of 18.

This student manual is part of a safety and health curriculum for secondary and post-secondary electrical trades courses. The manual is designed to engage the learner in recognizing, evaluating, and controlling hazards associ- ated with electrical work. It was developed through extensive research with vocational instructors, and we are grateful for their valuable contributions.

Christine M. Branche, Ph.D. Acting Director National Institute for Occupational

Safety and Health Centers for Disease Control

and Prevention

iii

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