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PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES - page 36 / 38

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Dietary Factors-Class 3

Observational factors have suggested that a number of dietary factors may increase CVD risk

Ni-Hon-San Study-Japanese immigrants to Hawaii and California

Observational studies

Diet high fruit and vegetables-lower CVD risk

High fat and trans-fat diets-higher CVD risk

Diet high in simple carbohydrates-higher CVD risk

Low fiber diets-higher CVD risk

Diets high in omega-3 fatty acids-lower CVD risk

“Mediterranean diet”-lower CVD risk (secondary prevention study)

Specific foods and nutrients

Whole grains, fiber, fish, fish oils, soy protein, folate, vitamin B6, Vitamin E, coenzyme Q10-observational studies suggest lower rates of CVD risk

Vitamin E-in randomized trials, little effect on CVD risk, possibly a detrimental effect

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