Direct Solar Energy
the primary source of information, but their accuracy is inherently lower than that of a well-maintained and calibrated ground measurement. Therefore, satellite radiation products require validation with accurate ground-based measurements (e.g., the Baseline Surface Radiation Network). Presently, the solar irradiance at the Earth’s surface is esti- mated with an accuracy of about 15 W/m2 on a regional scale (ISCCP Data Products, 2006). The Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring project, under the leadership of the German Meteorological Service and in partnership with the Finnish, Belgian, Dutch, Swedish and Swiss National Meteorological Services, has developed methodologies for irradiance data from satellite measurements.
Various international and national institutions provide information on the solar resource, including the World Radiation Data Centre (Russia), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (USA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, USA), the Brasilian Spatial Institute (Brazil), the German Aerospace Center (Germany), the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (Australia), and the Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (Spain), National Meteorological Services, and certain commercial companies. Table 3.2 gives references to some international and national projects that are collecting, processing and archiving information on solar irradi- ance resources at the Earth’s surface and subsequently distributing it in easily accessible formats with understandable quality metrics.
Possible impact of climate change on resource potential
Climate change due to an increase of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere may influence atmospheric water vapour content, cloud cover, rainfall and turbidity, and this can impact the resource potential of solar energy in different regions of the globe. Changes in major cli- mate variables, including cloud cover and solar irradiance at the Earth’s surface, have been evaluated using climate models and considering anthropogenic forcing for the 21st century (Meehl et al., 2007; Meleshko et al., 2008).These studies found that the pattern of variation of monthly mean global solar irradiance does not exceed 1% over some regions of the globe, and it varies from model to model. Currently, there is no other evidence indicating a substantial impact of global warming on regional solar resources. Although some research on global dimming and global brightening indicates a probable impact on irradiance, no current evi- dence is available. Uncertainty in pattern changes seems to be rather large, even for large-scale areas of the Earth.
Technology and applications
This section discusses technical issues for a range of solar technologies, organized under the following categories: passive solar and daylighting,
Table 3.2 | International and national projects that collect, process and archive information on solar irradiance resources at the Earth’s surface.
Available Data Sets
Ground-based solar irradiance from 1,280 sites for 1964 to 2009 provided by national meteorological services around the world.
World Radiation Data Centre, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation (wrdc.mgo.rssi.ru)
National Solar Radiation Database that includes 1,454 ground locations for 1991 to 2005. The satellite-modelled solar data for 1998 to 2005 provided on 10-km grid. The hourly values of solar data can be used to determine solar resources for collectors.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA (www.nrel.gov)
European Solar Radiation Database that includes measured solar radiation complemented with other meteorological data necessary for solar engineering. Satellite images from METEOSAT help in improving accuracy in spatial interpolation. Test Reference Years were also included.
Supported by Commission of the European Communities, National Weather Services and scientific institutions of the European countries
The Solar Radiation Atlas of Africa contains information on surface radiation over Europe, Asia Minor and Africa. Data covering 1985 to 1986 were derived from measurements by METEOSAT 2.
Supported by the Commission of the European Communities
The solar data set for Africa based on images from METEOSAT processed with the Heliosat-2 method covers the period 1985 to 2004 and is supplemented with ground-based solar irradiance.
Ecole des Mines de Paris, France
Typical Meteorological ear ( est Reference ear) data sets of hourly values of solar radiation and meteorological parameters derived from individual weather observations in long-term (up to 30 years) data sets to establish a typical year of hourly data
Used by designers of heating and cooling systems and large-scale solar thermal power plants.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA. National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA. (www.ncdc.noaa.gov)
The solar radiation data for solar energy applications. IEA/SHC Task36 provides a wide range of users with information on solar radiation resources at Earth’s surface in easily accessible formats with understandable quality metrics. The task focuses on development, validation and access to solar resource information derived from surface- and satellite-based platforms.
International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC). (swera.unep.net)
Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) project aimed at developing information tools to simulate RE development. SWERA provides easy access to high-quality RE resource information and data for users. Covered major areas of 13 developing countries in Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa and Asia. SWERA produced a range of solar data sets and maps at better spatial scales of resolution than previously available using satellite- and ground-based observations.
Global Environment Facility-sponsored project. United Nations Environment Programme (swera.unep.net)