the market is estimated between 9 and 24 GW of additional installed PV systems, with a consensus value in the 13 GW range (Jäger-Waldau, 2010a).
Figure 3.9 illustrates the cumulative installed capacity for the top eight PV markets through 2009, including Germany (9,800 MW), Spain (3,500 MW), Japan (2,630 MW), the USA (1,650 MW), Italy (1,140 MW), Korea (460 MW), France (370 MW) and the People’s Republic of China (300 MW). By far, Spain and Germany have seen the largest amounts of growth in installed PV capacity in recent years, with Spain seeing a huge surge in 2008 and Germany having experienced steady growth over the last five years.
Cumulative Installed Capacity [MW]
Figure 3.9 | Installed PV capacity in eight markets. Data sources: EurObserv’ER (2009); IEA (2009c); REN21 (2009); and Jäger-Waldau (2010b).
4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000
Concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) is an emerging market with about 17 MW of cumulative installed capacity at the end of 2008. The two main tracks are high-concentration PV (>300 times or 300 suns) and low- to medium-concentration PV with a concentration factor of 2 to about 300 (2 to ~300 suns). To maximize the benefits of CPV, the technology requires high direct-beam irradiance, and these areas have a limited geographical range—the ‘Sun Belt’ of the Earth. The market share of CPV is still small, but an increasing number of companies are focusing on CPV. In 2008, about 10 MW of CPV were installed, and market esti- mates for 2009 are in the 20 to 30 MW range; for 2010, about 100 MW are expected.
Regarding CSP electricity generation, at the beginning of 2009, more than 700 MWe of grid-connected CSP plants were installed worldwide, with another 1,500 MWe under construction (Torres et al., 2010). The majority of installed plants use parabolic trough technology. Central- receiver technology comprises a growing share of plants under construction and those announced. The bulk of the operating capacity is installed in Spain and the south-western United States.
In 2007, after a hiatus of more than 15 years, the first major CSP plants came on line with Nevada Solar One (64 MWe, USA) and PS10 (11 MWe, Spain). In Spain, successive Royal Decrees have been in place since 2004 and have stimulated the CSP industry in that country. Royal Decree
Direct Solar Energy
661/2007 has been a major driving force for CSP plant construction and expansion plans. As of November 2009, 2,340 MWe of CSP projects had been preregistered for the tariff provisions of the Royal Decree. In the USA, more than 4,500 MWe of CSP are currently under power purchase agreement contracts. The different contracts specify when the projects must start delivering electricity between 2010 and 2015 (Bloem et al., 2010). More than 10,000 MWe of new CSP plants have been proposed in the USA. More than 50 CSP electricity projects are currently in the plan- ning phase, mainly in North Africa, Spain and the USA. In Australia, the federal government has called for 1,000 MWe of new solar plants, cover- ing both CSP and PV, under the Solar Flagships programme. Figure 3.10 shows the current and planned deployment to add more CSP capacity in the near future.
Hybrid solar/fossil plants have received increasing attention in recent years, and several integrated solar combined-cycle (ISCC) projects have been either commissioned or are under construction in the Mediterranean region and the USA. The first plant in Morocco (Ain Beni Mathar: 470 MW total, 22 MW solar) began operating in June 2010, and two additional plants in Algeria (Hassi R’Mel: 150 MW total, 30 MW solar) and Egypt (Al Kuraymat: 140 MW total, 20 MW solar) are under construction. In Italy, another example of an ISCC project is Archimede; however, the plant’s 31,000-m2 parabolic trough solar field will be the first to use molten salt as the heat transfer fluid (SolarPACES, 2009a).
Solar fuel production technologies are in an earlier stage of develop- ment. The high-temperature solar reactor technology is typically being developed at a laboratory scale of 1 to 10 kWth solar power input.
Installed Capacity [MW]
South Africa China Israel Jordan Egypt Algeria Morocco Tunesia Abu Dhabi Australia Spain USA
Figure 3.10 | Installed and planned concentrated solar power plants by country (Bloem et al., 2010).