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APPENDIX 2

Country

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

Mean

Range

United

1.1

0.2 - 4

0.9

0.1 - 4

0.9

0.1 - 4

States

China

0.9

0.1 - 12

0.9

0.1 - 19

1

0.03 - 10

Medium

0.9

0.5 - 2

0.9

0.4 - 3

0.8

0.3 - 2

Table 1. Natural radionuclide content in soil*

1

Ra-266

Concentration in soil (pCi/g)

U-238

Th-232

*Source: UNSCEAR 2000 Vol. I, Annex B, Table 5 (http://www.unscear.org/docs/reports/annexb.pdf)

0.9

Population- weighted average

0.9

12

0.2 - 49

11

4 - 23

Mea 10

11

K-40

n

Range 3 - 19

Concrete

1.1

0.8

11

6

5

43

Aerated and light-

1.6

1.1

12

70

5

43

weight concrete

Clay (red) bricks

1.4

1.4

18

5

5

54

Sand-lime bricks

0.3

0.3

9

0.7

0.8

19

Natural building

1.6

1.6

17

14

8

108

stones

Natural gypsum

0.3

0.3

2

2

3

5

Table 2. Typical and maximum activity concentrations in common building materials and industrial by-products used for building materials in Europe**

Typical activity concentration (pCi/g)

Ra-266

Th-232

K-40

Maximum activity concentration (pCi/g)

Ra-266

Th-232

K-40

Most common building materials (may include by-products)

**Kovler, K. (2009). Radiological constraints of using building materials and industrial by-products in construction, Construction and Building Materials 23, 246–253.

Phosphogypsum

11

0.5

2

30

4

8

Blast furnace slag

7

2

6

57

9

27

Coal fly ash

5

3

18

30

8

41

Most common industrial by-products used in building materials

13

8/10/2009

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