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    • Another format looks at the following adaptations:

      • o

        Size – number of items to complete

        • o

          Time – Adapt the time/pace to complete tasks

        • o

          Level of Support – Increase personal assistance such as peer buddies or tutors

        • o

          Input – adapt the way the instruction is delivered

        • o

          Difficulty – Adapt the problem or how the learner approaches the task (e.g. simplify task directions)

        • o

          Output – adapt how the student can respond to the instruction

        • o

          Participation – Adapt the extent to which a learner is involved

  • 5.

    Isn’t it cheating to give some students different accommodations or adaptations?

    • An ideal model includes a non-punitive teaching approach that doesn’t inhibit access to an optimum learning environment, but works “with” the student to gain the most out of the content material and to maximize the students’ cognition or thinking skills (universal design). For example, if you want to give a student the chance to make a “cheat sheet” for an exam this strategy could be used for all the students in the class so that the identified student is not “set apart”. The cognitive skills required to thoughtfully prepare a cheat sheet are significant. At the same time the student learns to develop excellent study habits. The key element to focus on is your “intention” in administering the test. Is it to memorize some facts or to demonstrate an ability to think or to strategize? Often times we do not define the purpose of our tests. It is good practice to set the intention or criteria of an assessment before administration.

  • 6.

    Does giving fewer questions in class or for homework mean a modified program?

  • No, this is not a modified program, if the student can handle the concepts and content – the volume is not an indicator of the achievement of the performance standards. It is common to arbitrarily assign the number of questions students should answer in class or for homework. Research does not indicate that more is better. Nancy Boyles (M.Ed. and Darlene Contadino, (M.S.W.) from “The Learning Differences Sourcebook” writes that the following on this topic: “In testing

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