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suggesting alternative ways to view the display surface and the presentation [5].

The importance of actively involving students in classroom activities at regular intervals is supported by studies on

student attention spans [2][13]. educational work attempting to

There has been some evaluate the use of

PowerPoint in university overall results have been learning outcomes, but the comments on the use of favorable student response.

classrooms [7][8][14].

The

ambiguous

with

respect

to

papers

have

some

perceptive

PowerPoint and indicate a There has also been an active

debate on polemics on

the lecture style supported all sides [15][12][4].

by

slides

with

6. Conclusions This work describes the Classroom Presenter lecture presentation system developed at the University of Washington. We highlight some of the specific utilities of the system in the context on an undergraduate computer architecture course. The main benefits of Presenter stem from wireless, high-quality inking over slides during lecture

combined projector.

with a separation of views between instructor and These features have enabled high levels of

spontaneity and architecture class.

interactivity in an Specifically, the ability to

undergraduate use instructor-

only

visible

objects

to

annotate

diagrams

and

graphs

can

encourage the instructor to develop designs jointly class rather than presenting them as problems solved.

with the already

References [1]Abowd, G. D. Classroom 2000: an experiment with the instrumentation of a living educational environment. IBM Systems Journal, 38(4), 1999. [2]Angelo, Thomas A. and Cross, K. Patricia. Classroom Assessment Techniques. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, 1993. [3]Bligh, D. A. What’s the use of lectures? Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco, 2000.

[4]Creed, Tom. PowerPoint No, Cyberspace Yes. The National

Teaching & Learning http://www.ntlf.com/html/sf/cyberspace.htm

Forum,

1997,

[5]Good, Lance and Bederson, Benjamin B. CounterPoint: Creating Jazzy Interactive Presentations. HCIL Tech Report #2001-03. University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, 2001.

[6]Gross, Mark D., and Do, Ellen Yi-Luen. Drawing on the Back of an Envelope: a framework for interacting with application programs by freehand drawing. Computers &

Graphics, 24 pp. 835-849, 2000.

[7]Hozl,

J.

Twelve

tips

for

effective

PowerPoint

presentations for the technologically challenged. Medical Teacher, 19, 175-179, 1997.

[8] Lowry, R. B. Electronic presentation of lectures -- effect upon student performance. University Chemistry Education, 3 (1), 18- 21. 1999.

[9]McConnell, Jeffrey J. Active Learning and Its Use in Computer Science. SIGCSE/SIGCUE Conference on Integrating Technology into Computer Science Education (Barcelona, Spain June 2-5, 1996), also published as SIGCSE Bulletin, Vol. 28 Special Issue, 1996, pp. 52-54.

[10]Myers, Brad A. and Stiel, Brad A. and Gargiulo, Robert. Collaboration using multiple PDAs connected to a PC. In Proceedings of CSCW’98: ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, pages 285–294, November 1998. [11]Mynatt, E., Igarashi, T., Edwards, W. K., and LaMarca A. Flatland: new dimensions in office whiteboards. Proceedings of ACM Human Factors in Computing (CHI 99). New Your: ACM, pp 346-353. 1999.

[12]Rocklin, Tom. PowerPoint is Not Evil! National Teaching and Learning Forum Newsletter, 1997. http://www.ntlf.com/html/sf/notevil.htm

[13]Stuart, John and Rutherford, R. J. Medical Student Concentration During Lectures. The Lancet, September 2, 1978, pp. 514-516.

[14]Szabo, Atilla and Hastings, Nigel, Using IT in the undergraduate classroom: should we replace the blackboard with PowerPoint? Computers & Education, 35 175-187, 2000.

[15]Tufte, E., "The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint", www.edwardtufte.com, 2003.

[16]Vygotsky, L.S. Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.

Appendix: Classroom Presenter Feature List

The Filmstrip. The Filmstrip is a “preview strip” of slides

surrounding

the

currently

displayed

slide.

The

filmstrip

facilitates non-linear slide navigation order, allow faculty to react to the development of discussion in class.

which ideas

can and

Filmstrip preview. Another benefit of the filmstrip view is to allow the instructor to make appropriate concluding comments based on the content of the next slide to be displayed. Filmstrip preview makes this more viable by showing an instructor-visible “zoomed in” version of a filmstrip slide when the tablet pen is “waved” over a portion of the filmstrip.

The Toolbar. Back and forward buttons are placed at both ends to allow easy movement one slide in either direction of the current slide. Four inking colors are supported as well as two ink “tips”: a square and a round tip. The next three buttons select “regular pen” inking, highlighting, or stroke-

based

erasing.

The following

three

buttons control

the

view:

full slide,

¾ size slide, or

blank

whiteboard (you

can

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