Introduction:Nature of electromagnetic radiation as waves (general nature, diffraction, dispersion, refraction, reflection, scattering, polarization), quantum mechanical properties (photoelectric effect, absorption and emission of radiation by atoms and molecules) and electromagnetic spectrum, Beer’s and Lambert laws, deviations from Beer’s law.
Introduction: Electronic excitation, absorption by molecules, effect of solution on absorption wavelength (Bathochromic and Hypsochromic shift), interpretation of UV spectra, instrumentation (single and double beam spectrophotometers) and applications.
b)INFRA RED SPECTROSCOPY:
Introduction: Theory of IR, types of vibration, intensity of absorption bands, theoretical group frequencies and factor effecting of absorption bands, group frequencies, instrumentation and applications.
Introduction: Detail studies of emission, X-ray absorption, diffraction and fluorescence methods, instrumentation and applications.
Theory of Fluorescence and phosphorescence, Instruments for measuring fluorescence and phosphorescence, application and photoluminescence methods and chemiluminescence.
Introduction, instrumentation and applications.
b)ATOMIC ABSORPTlON SPECTROSCOPY
Principle, flame chemistry, types of flame, Interferences, instrumentation and applications.