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the sustainability parameters. The development of a comprehensive multi-objective decision-making approach that integrates and appropriately considers all these issues, within the water resources project selection process, warrants further research.

3.4 Spatial Analysis Procedures

An integrated system approach to developing and testing modeling technology requires different spatial analysis procedures such as: geostatistic methods, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS).

Geostatistics, a set of statistical estimation techniques involving quantities which vary over space and time, has found wide application in surface and subsurface hydrology (Matheron, 1971; De Wrachien, 1976; de Marsily, 1986; Kitanidis, 1992). Uncertainty often exists regarding the definition of standards for parameter and input identification for surface and/or groundwater simulation models. This uncertainty often stems from an inadequate understanding of fundamental physical processes, upscaling procedures, methods for integrating and aggregating data in space and time and the spatial and temporal interrelationships of datasets. Geostatistics can help define these standards and provide flexibility for the creation, validation, testing and evaluation of data sets that have distinct temporal and spatial components.

Remote Sensing applications to hydrology are relatively new but are rapidly becoming an important information source for water resources planners and managers (D’Souza and Barret, 1988; Engman, 1992). RS and its continuing advances offer a broad range of techniques for landscape rendering or identifying landscape features, or, in some cases, for actually measuring hydrologic state variables and processes.

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