4. Frameworks for Implementation of Conjunctive Use R & D
Institutional strengthening and proper financial assessment are essential tools for the rational planning, design and management of water resource systems. On the one hand, without a sound institutional framework at the watershed or regional level, it will not be possible to promote and ensure efficient integrated water resource management. On the other, economic constraints are equally important. The costs of system improvements are normally tremendous and governments, in this era of transition from state to market, will no longer be in a position to finance water planning, design and management activities. This new philosophy is based on the “user pays” principle. So, research thrust and sustainable development, as defined earlier, should meet two basic requirements, namely institutional strengthening and economic viability. To this end, appropriate institutional and financial analysis in all phases of water planning projects, is a prerequisite for the sustainable and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater.
4.1 Institutional Issues
In many countries the close of the twentieth century was marked by the change in the global economy from state ownership to a market oriented economy. The immediate outcome has been the move from subsidized towards privatized projects in the water sector.
On the one hand, privatization implies reduced government financing in water projects, on the other the move towards a market economy calls for improvements in both services and goods supplied by the projects. Added to this is the increasing public