the planning process alternative solutions can be defined, tested and chosen.
Normally artificial groundwater recharge is accomplished by means of infiltration basins or injection wells. Other techniques for augmenting subsurface supplies include vegetation management, runoff inducement and increasing seepage from streams by widening the wetted perimeter of channel sections or lowering the groundwater table in the flood plain.
Water quality aspects play a major role in this process. They mainly concern the quality of recharge water and its effects on groundwater quality. One striking example is the "Water Factory 21" plant in Orange County (California), where wastewater undergoes an advanced treatment process before being injected into deep wells to create a barrier against seawater intrusion (Cline, 1983).
Generally speaking, numerous issues need to be addressed before suitable recharge systems can be chosen, designed and managed for optimum environmental and economic performance. One problem is proper site selection, which requires field surveys and infiltration/soil hydraulic conductivity measurements to predict seepage rates. More research is also needed on optimum management of storage systems, including flooding and drying schedules for infiltration basins, as well as pre-treatment (sediment removal) of water.
To address the above-mentioned groundwater management problems, the following steps or phases should be considered and carried out:
general groundwater surveys and identification of the sites that require in-depth studies; these studies provide estimates of water quality and quantity, corroborated up by reliable data;