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eCAM 2009

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In the whole study population, there were signifi- cant correlations at baseline between age and physical role (r ¼ 0.412; P ¼ 0.008), vitality and general health

(r ¼ 0.433;

P ¼ 0.005),

habitual

sleep

efficiency and

social mental

function

health

and

(r ¼ 0.319;

emotional

P ¼ 0.045)

and

between

role

(r ¼ 0.346;

P ¼ 0.029),

sleep duration (r ¼ 0.485; P ¼ 0.001) efficiency (r ¼ 0.328; P ¼ 0.039).

and

habitual

sleep

At 35 Weeks After Intervention

At 35 weeks, the intervention group showed significant improvements in state anxiety (P50.029) and trait anxi- ety (P50.042) versus baseline scores. No changes were observed in the placebo group. The groups differed sig- nificantly in trait anxiety (P50.045). Depression scores did not differ significantly between groups or with respect to baseline values (Fig. 2).

VAS-measured pain improved significantly in the intervention group versus baseline (P50.035) and differed between groups (P50.041). The intervention group also showed significant improvement in physical function (P50.024), physical role (P50.020), body pain (P50.043), general health (P50.039), vitality (P50.041) and social function (P50.029). The placebo group showed no significant changes versus baseline in SF-36 question- naire dimensions. The groups differed in physical function (P50.009), physical role (P50.019), body pain (P50.036), general health (P50.048), vitality (P50.046) and social function (P50.028) (Table 2). The intervention group showed a significant overall improvement in Pitts- burgh sleep quality index score (P50.043), and the groups differed significantly in the sleep duration (P50.042) and sleep disturbance (P50.040) items (Table 3).

In the intervention group, significant correlations were found between trait anxiety and Beck depression

Beck Depression Inventory

State Anxiety

3

25

24.43

2.5

2.52

2.5

2.52

2.54

2.33

2.52

24

23.32

2.08

2.13

23

22.89

2

22.28

22.42

22.4

Mean

1.5

Mean

22

21

20.53

21.17

1

20

0.5

19

0

18

Baseline

25 Weeks

6 Months

1 Year

Baseline

25 Weeks

6 Months

1 Year

Time Point

Time Point

Trait Anxiety

27.5

Visual Analogue Scale

27

26.88

*

26.7

26.58

26.68

9.4 9.2

9.13

*

Mean

26.5

26

25.5

26.15

25.57

26.07

Mean

9 8.8

8.6 8.4

8.9

8.88

8.65

8.9

8.97

8.94

25

25

8.2 8

8.18

24.5

24

7.8 7.6

Baseline

25 Weeks

6 Months

1 Year

Baseline

25 Weeks

6 Months

1 Year

Time Point

Time Point

Intervention Group

Placebo Group

Figure 2. Comparisons between study groups in levels of depression, anxiety and pain. *P ¼ 0.05 (95% CI). Values are presented as means.

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