1. Global Validation Services
This category includes tests and services that validate the purchaser based on demo- graphic or account enrolment data, including the following:
Telephone Number Validation
Delivery Address Verification: Validates address format and deliverability. Often used at time of order placement to detect “fat fingering” and eliminate the risk of invalid order rejection or mis-shipment.
U.S. Export Compliance/DPL Lists: Real-time check of denied parties and persons of question across multiple lists maintained by U.S. government agencies.
Payer Authentication Services: Validates cardholder identity based on enrollment in Verified by Visa and related card brand authentication programs.
AVS/CVV Services: Real-time check of Address Verification Service (AVS) and card verification number services provided by card brands.
2. Single Merchant Purchase History
This category includes tests to evaluate and correlate the purchase behavior evidenced at the merchant site, including the following:
Single Merchant Purchase Velocity : Monitors the frequency of orders placed at this merchant, the purchases of a particular SKU in a given timeframe, and the value of accumulated purchases, or a combination of these conditions. This helps identify abnormal purchase behavior such as the purchase of 10 flatscreen TVs, etc.
Negative & Positive Lists: Lists maintained by merchant to denote customers they do not wish to sell to (based on prior fraudulent or related purchase history) or conversely, a list of loyal customers for whom they wish to always ensure order approval.
Other Customer Data: Other data from customer purchase histories that may be useful to the merchant in determining fraud risk.
3. Multi-Merchant Purchase History
This category includes tests to assess purchase behavior across multiple merchants, including the following:
Identity Morphing Detection: Tests to detect whether personal identifiers, such as email or name, have been used with other identities or credit cards and thus raise questions regarding order integrity.
Visa e-commerce cross-border handbook for U.S. retailers
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