International Marketing Communications
or discussion among friends. Next comes with evaluation on the information he or she received. At this stage, leaflets, catalogues, ads and discussions are amassed and a set of criteria is further refined. As the result, purchase decision has been made and action would take. After purchase, waves of worry and or doubt arise, and an evaluation will be carried out as the result, if the product or service matches the promise, then both repeat business and word of mouth referrals are likely to occur over the long period of time. (Smith and Taylor 2002)
According to Smith and Taylor (2002), this type of decision making process is normally associated with high involvement purchase such as to choose which airline to fly with based on the information customer gathered. Thus a push strategy could be used in the information search stage and a pull strategy would be useful in the post-purchase evaluation stage to reassure the customers.
4.1.2 ATR Model
ATR model (Awareness Trial Reinforcement) has been developed by Professor Ehrenberg in 1974 (quoted in Smith and Taylor 2002) in which suggests that a consumer moves through the purchasing cycle through a series of stage, starts from aware of a brand; then develop an interest, as the result, a try out action (buy) would take and the product will subject to a reinforcement process.
In this type of model, a mixture of poll and profile strategy would be very applicable.
Both Extensive Problem Solving and ATR model highlights some of the stages that a customer is going through before and after he or she makes a purchase decision. Information sources and consumers’ buying criteria can also be identified by using these models, which in turn justify which strategy will be applied in the following part of this report.
4.2 Planning and Development of BA’s New Theme and Key Message