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Bilateral—Both sides (of the body).

Catheter—An tube for draining urine; “internal”: inserted into the bladder (Foley) or “external”: over the penis (condom).

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)—The liquid which fills the ventricles of the brain and surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

Chronic—Marked by long duration or frequent recurrence.

Circumlocution—Use of other words to describe a specific word or idea which cannot be remembered.

Clonus—A sustained series of rhythmic jerks, usually seen in ankles or wrists, caused by the quick stretching of a muscle.

Cognitive Retraining—Developing or relearning the processes involved in thinking.

Coma—A state of unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused, even by powerful stimulation.

Concussion—The common result of a blow or jerk to the head usually causing an altered mental state, either temporary or prolonged.

Confabulation—Verbalizations about people, places, and events with no basis in reality.

Contracture—Loss of range of motion in a joint due to abnormal shortening of soft tissues.

Contrecoup—Bruising of brain tissue on the side opposite where the blow was struck.

CT Scan/Computerized Tomography—A series of computerized X-rays of the brain at various levels to reveal its structure.

Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI)—A shearing injury of large nerve fibers in many areas of the brain.

Diplopia—Seeing two images of a single object; double vision.

Dysarthria—Unclear, slurred speech resulting from weakness and/or incoordination of the muscles used to produce speech and sound.

Dysphagia—A swallowing disorder characterized by difficulty in moving food from the mouth to the stomach. It may include problems in positioning food in the mouth.

Edema—Collection of fluid in a tissue causing swelling.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)—A procedure that uses electrodes on the scalp to record electrical activity of the brain.

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