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Electromyography (EMG)—An insertion of needle electrodes into muscles to study the electrical activity of muscle and nerve fibers.

Endotracheal Tube—A tube that serves as an artificial airway and is inserted through the patient’s mouth or nose. The tube may connect a respirator to the patient.

Extension—To straighten a joint, such as straightening your knee. Extremity—Arm or leg.

Fine Motor Activities—Complex activities involving the hand, such as writing and manipulating small objects.

Flaccid—Lacking muscle tone; flabby. Flexion—To bend a joint, such as bending your elbow.

Foley Catheter—A tube inserted into the bladder to drain urine, which collects into a plastic bag.

Gait Training—Instruction in walking, with or without equipment; also called

ambulation training.

Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)—A feeding tube passed directly into the stomach from a surgical opening in the abdomen.

Gross Motor Activities—Large movements of body parts, such as those involved in rolling, sitting up and standing.

Halo—A metal ring used for patients with upper spinal cord injuries which is bolted into and surrounds the patient’s head, allowing for proper alignment of the neck and spinal column.

Hematoma—The collection of blood in tissues or a space following rupture of a blood vessel.

Hemianopsia—Loss of half the visual field in one or both eyes. Hemiparesis—Lack of muscle control on one side of the body. Hydrocephalus—Enlargement of fluid-filled cavities in the brain, not due to brain


Hypertonic—Abnormal increase in muscle tone, or tension. Hypotonic—Abnormal decrease in muscle tone, or relaxation. Hypoxia—Insufficient oxygen reaching the tissues of the body.

Incontinent—Inability to control bowel and bladder functions. Many people who are incontinent can become continent with training.

Intracranial Pressure (ICP)—Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure measured from a 45

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