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GERMAN HISTORICAL INSTITUTE WASHNGTON, D.C. ANNUAL LECTURE SERIES No. 8 - page 19 / 46

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The influx of refugee historians from Germany and Austria transformed and revitalized interest in modern German history but not in medieval. Scholars who did manage to obtain positions in the United States during the 1930s did not do much to change American hostility toward and ignorance of medieval Germany. Although a number of important medievalists figured among them, from Ernst Kantorowicz to Gerhard Ladner, Theodor E. Mommsen, and Stephan Kuttner, to the philologists Konstantin Reichardt and Erich Auerbach, the kind of scholarship these intellectual leaders pursued in America avoided German history and culture for the most part in favor of church history and intellectual and cultural history of the European civilization. The students of these refugees, who have had such a prominent place in medieval studies in America in the past decades, were thus from the start not German historians but historians of European cultural history. In a recent article on the two giants of this tradition, Kantorowicz and Mommsen, Robert Lerner, a specialist on medieval religious history, lists the distinguished students whom Mommsen produced. They include a numismatist, a canon lawyer, a historian of Spanish and French institutions, two Italianists, a church historian, and a paleographer. None have devoted their careers to the study of Germany or German-speaking lands. 13 14

13 14

See the remarkable series of essays in Lehmann/Sheehan, eds., Robert E. Lerner, "Ernst Kantorowicz and Theodor E. Mommsen," in

Lehmann/Sheehan, eds.,

, 203204. Among those who earned a

doctorate at Princeton University after working entirely or substantially with Mommsen are Howard Adelson of City College in New York, Robert Benson of UCLA, Thomas Bisson of Harvard, William Bowsky of UC at Davis, Gene Brucker of UC at Berkeley, and Norman Cantor of NYU; among those who studied with him at Cornell (where he taught for only two years before his death) are Karl

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