Discuss the dual wave-particle nature of light.
Discuss the significance of the photoelectric effect and the line-emission spectrum of hydrogen to the development of the atomic model.
Describe the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom.
Discuss Louis de Broglie’s role in the development of the quantum model of the atom.
Compare and contrast the Bohr model and the quantum model of the atom.
Explain how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the Schrödinger wave equation led to the idea of atomic orbitals.
List the four quantum numbers, and describe their significance.
Relate the number of sublevels corresponding to each of an atom’s main energy levels, the number of orbitals per sublevel, and the number of orbitals per main energy level.
List the total number of electrons needed to fully occupy each main energy level.
State the Aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund’s rule.
Describe the electron configurations for the atoms of any element using orbital notation, electron- configuration notation, and, when appropriate, noble-gas notation.
Chapter 5 The Periodic Law
Explain the roles of Mendeleev and Moseley in the development of the periodic table.
Describe the modern periodic table.
Explain how the periodic law can be used to predict the physical and chemical properties of elements.
Describe how the elements belonging to a group of the periodic table are interrelated in terms of atomic number.
Describe the relationship between electrons in sublevels and the length of each period of the periodic table.
Locate and name the four blocks of the periodic table. Explain the reasons for these names.
Discuss the relationship between group configurations and group numbers.
Describe the locations in the periodic table and the general properties of the alkali metals, the alkaline- earth metals, the halogens, and the noble gases.
Define atomic and ionic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity.
Compare the periodic trends of atomic radii, ionization energy, and electronegativity, and state the reasons for these variations.
Define valence electrons, and state how many are present in atoms of each main-group element.
Compare the atomic radii, ionization energies, and electronegativities of the d-block elements with those of the main-group elements.
Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding
Define chemical bond.
Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds.
Describe ionic and covalent bonding.
Explain why most chemical bonding is neither purely ionic nor purely covalent.
Classify bonding type according to electronegativity differences.
Define molecule and molecular formula.
Explain the relationships between potential energy, distance between approaching atoms, bond length, and
State the octet rule.
List the six basic steps used in writing Lewis structures.
Explain how to determine Lewis structures for molecules containing single bonds, multiple bonds, or both.
Explain why scientists use resonance structures to represent some molecules.
Compare and contrast a chemical formula for a molecular compound with one for an ionic compound.
Discuss the arrangements of ions in crystals.
Define lattice energy and explain its significance.