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Chemistry I Spring Semester Objectives

Chapter 10: Physical Characteristics of Gases

  • 123.

    State the kinetic-molecular theory of matter, and describe how it explains certain properties of matter.

  • 124.

    List the five assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory of gases. Define the terms ideal gas and real gas.

  • 125.

    Describe each of the following characteristic properties of gases: expansion, density, fluidity, compressibility, diffusion, and effusion.

  • 126.

    Describe the conditions under which a real gas deviates from “ideal” behavior.

  • 127.

    Define pressure, and relate it to force.

  • 128.

    Describe how pressure is measured.

  • 129.

    Convert units of pressure.

  • 130.

    State the standard conditions of temperature and pressure.

  • 131.

    Use the kinetic-molecular theory to explain the relationships between gas volume, temperature, and pressure.

  • 132.

    Use Boyle’s law to calculate volume-pressure changes at constant temperature.

  • 133.

    Use Charles’s law to calculate volume-temperature changes at constant pressure.

  • 134.

    Use Gay-Lussac’s law to calculate pressure-temperature changes at constant volume.

  • 135.

    Use the combined gas law to calculate volume-temperature-pressure changes.

  • 136.

    Use Dalton’s law of partial pressures to calculate partial pressures and total pressures.

Chapter 11: Molecular Composition of Gases

  • 137.

    State the law of combining volumes.

  • 138.

    State Avogadro’s law and explain its significance.

  • 139.

    Define standard molar volume of a gas, and use it to calculate gas masses and volumes.

  • 140.

    Use standard molar volume to calculate the molar mass of a gas.

  • 141.

    State the ideal gas law.

  • 142.

    Derive the ideal gas constant and discuss its units.

  • 143.

    Using the ideal gas law, calculate pressure, volume, temperature, or amount of gas when the other three quantities are known.

  • 144.

    Using the ideal gas law, calculate the molar mass or density of a gas.

  • 145.

    Reduce the ideal gas law to Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, and Avogadro’s law. Describe the conditions under which each applies.

  • 146.

    Explain how Gay-Lussac’s law and Avogadro’s law apply to the volumes of gases in chemical reactions.

  • 147.

    Use a chemical equation to specify volume ratios for gaseous reactants or products, or both.

  • 148.

    Use volume ratios and the gas laws to calculate volumes, masses, or molar amounts of gaseous reactants or products.

  • 149.

    State Graham’s law of effusion.

  • 150.

    Determine the relative rates of effusion of two gases of known molar masses.

  • 151.

    State the relationship between the molecular velocities of two gases and their molar masses.

Chapter 12: Liquids and Solids

152. Describe the motion of particles in liquids and the properties of liquids according to the kinetic-molecular theory.

  • 153.

    Discuss the process by which liquids can change into a gas. Define vaporization.

  • 154.

    Discuss the process by which liquids can change into a solid. Define freezing.

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