Chemistry I Spring Semester Objectives
Chapter 10: Physical Characteristics of Gases
State the kinetic-molecular theory of matter, and describe how it explains certain properties of matter.
List the five assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory of gases. Define the terms ideal gas and real gas.
Describe each of the following characteristic properties of gases: expansion, density, fluidity, compressibility, diffusion, and effusion.
Describe the conditions under which a real gas deviates from “ideal” behavior.
Define pressure, and relate it to force.
Describe how pressure is measured.
Convert units of pressure.
State the standard conditions of temperature and pressure.
Use the kinetic-molecular theory to explain the relationships between gas volume, temperature, and pressure.
Use Boyle’s law to calculate volume-pressure changes at constant temperature.
Use Charles’s law to calculate volume-temperature changes at constant pressure.
Use Gay-Lussac’s law to calculate pressure-temperature changes at constant volume.
Use the combined gas law to calculate volume-temperature-pressure changes.
Use Dalton’s law of partial pressures to calculate partial pressures and total pressures.
Chapter 11: Molecular Composition of Gases
State the law of combining volumes.
State Avogadro’s law and explain its significance.
Define standard molar volume of a gas, and use it to calculate gas masses and volumes.
Use standard molar volume to calculate the molar mass of a gas.
State the ideal gas law.
Derive the ideal gas constant and discuss its units.
Using the ideal gas law, calculate pressure, volume, temperature, or amount of gas when the other three quantities are known.
Using the ideal gas law, calculate the molar mass or density of a gas.
Reduce the ideal gas law to Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, and Avogadro’s law. Describe the conditions under which each applies.
Explain how Gay-Lussac’s law and Avogadro’s law apply to the volumes of gases in chemical reactions.
Use a chemical equation to specify volume ratios for gaseous reactants or products, or both.
Use volume ratios and the gas laws to calculate volumes, masses, or molar amounts of gaseous reactants or products.
State Graham’s law of effusion.
Determine the relative rates of effusion of two gases of known molar masses.
State the relationship between the molecular velocities of two gases and their molar masses.
Chapter 12: Liquids and Solids
152. Describe the motion of particles in liquids and the properties of liquids according to the kinetic-molecular theory.
Discuss the process by which liquids can change into a gas. Define vaporization.
Discuss the process by which liquids can change into a solid. Define freezing.