155. Describe the motion of particles in solids and the properties of solids according to the kinetic-molecular theory.
Distinguish between the two types of solids.
Explain the relationship between equilibrium and changes of state.
Predict changes in equilibrium using Le Châtelier’s principle.
Explain what is meant by equilibrium vapor pressure.
Describe the processes of boiling, freezing, melting, and sublimation.
Interpret phase diagrams.
Describe the structure of a water molecule.
Discuss the physical properties of water. Explain how they are determined by the structure of water.
Calculate the amount of heat energy absorbed or released when a quantity of water changes state.
Chapter 13: Solutions
Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance.
Distinguish between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures.
List three different solute-solvent combinations.
Compare the properties of suspensions, colloids, and solutions.
Distinguish between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes.
List and explain three factors that affect the rate at which a solid solute dissolves in a liquid solvent.
Explain solution equilibrium, and distinguish among saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions.
Explain the meaning of “like dissolves like” in terms of polar and nonpolar substances.
List the three interactions that contribute to the heat of solution, and explain what causes dissolution to be exothermic or endothermic.
Compare the effects of temperature and pressure on solubility.
Given the mass of solute and volume of solvent, calculate the concentration of a solution.
Given the concentration of a solution, determine the amount of solute in a given amount of solution.
Given the concentration of a solution, determine the amount of solution that contains a given amount of solute.
Chapter 14: Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Colligative Properties
Write equations for the dissolution of soluble ionic compounds in water.
Predict whether a precipitate will form when solutions of soluble ionic compounds are combined, and write net ionic equations for precipitation reactions.
Compare dissociation of ionic compounds with ionization of molecular compounds.
Draw the structure of the hydronium ion, and explain why it is used to represent the hydrogen ion in solution.
Distinguish between strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes.
List four colligative properties, and explain why they are classified as colligative properties.
Calculate freezing-point depression, boiling-point elevation, and solution molality of nonelectrolytic solutions.
Calculate the expected changes in freezing point and boiling point of an electrolytic solution.
Discuss causes of the differences between expected and experimentally observed colligative properties of electrolytic solutions.
Chapter 15: Acids and Bases
List five general properties of aqueous acids and bases.
Name common binary acids and oxyacids, given their chemical formulas.
List five acids commonly used in industry and the laboratory, and give two properties of each.