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155. Describe the motion of particles in solids and the properties of solids according to the kinetic-molecular theory.

  • 156.

    Distinguish between the two types of solids.

  • 157.

    Explain the relationship between equilibrium and changes of state.

  • 158.

    Predict changes in equilibrium using Le Châtelier’s principle.

  • 159.

    Explain what is meant by equilibrium vapor pressure.

  • 160.

    Describe the processes of boiling, freezing, melting, and sublimation.

  • 161.

    Interpret phase diagrams.

  • 162.

    Describe the structure of a water molecule.

  • 163.

    Discuss the physical properties of water. Explain how they are determined by the structure of water.

  • 164.

    Calculate the amount of heat energy absorbed or released when a quantity of water changes state.

Chapter 13: Solutions

  • 165.

    Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance.

  • 166.

    Distinguish between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures.

  • 167.

    List three different solute-solvent combinations.

  • 168.

    Compare the properties of suspensions, colloids, and solutions.

  • 169.

    Distinguish between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes.

  • 170.

    List and explain three factors that affect the rate at which a solid solute dissolves in a liquid solvent.

  • 171.

    Explain solution equilibrium, and distinguish among saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions.

  • 172.

    Explain the meaning of “like dissolves like” in terms of polar and nonpolar substances.

  • 173.

    List the three interactions that contribute to the heat of solution, and explain what causes dissolution to be exothermic or endothermic.

  • 174.

    Compare the effects of temperature and pressure on solubility.

  • 175.

    Given the mass of solute and volume of solvent, calculate the concentration of a solution.

  • 176.

    Given the concentration of a solution, determine the amount of solute in a given amount of solution.

  • 177.

    Given the concentration of a solution, determine the amount of solution that contains a given amount of solute.

Chapter 14: Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Colligative Properties

  • 178.

    Write equations for the dissolution of soluble ionic compounds in water.

  • 179.

    Predict whether a precipitate will form when solutions of soluble ionic compounds are combined, and write net ionic equations for precipitation reactions.

  • 180.

    Compare dissociation of ionic compounds with ionization of molecular compounds.

  • 181.

    Draw the structure of the hydronium ion, and explain why it is used to represent the hydrogen ion in solution.

  • 182.

    Distinguish between strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes.

  • 183.

    List four colligative properties, and explain why they are classified as colligative properties.

  • 184.

    Calculate freezing-point depression, boiling-point elevation, and solution molality of nonelectrolytic solutions.

  • 185.

    Calculate the expected changes in freezing point and boiling point of an electrolytic solution.

  • 186.

    Discuss causes of the differences between expected and experimentally observed colligative properties of electrolytic solutions.

Chapter 15: Acids and Bases

  • 187.

    List five general properties of aqueous acids and bases.

  • 188.

    Name common binary acids and oxyacids, given their chemical formulas.

  • 189.

    List five acids commonly used in industry and the laboratory, and give two properties of each.

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