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  • 190.

    Define acid and base according to Arrhenius’s theory of ionization.

  • 191.

    Explain the differences between strong and weak acids and bases.

  • 192.

    Define and recognize Brønsted acids and bases.

  • 193.

    Name compounds that are acids under the Lewis definition but are not acids under the Brønsted definition.

  • 194.

    Describe a conjugate acid, a conjugate base, and an amphoteric compound.

  • 195.

    Explain the process of neutralization.

  • 196.

    Explain how acid rain damages marble structures.

Chapter 16: Acid-Base Titration and pH

197. Describe the self-ionization of water. 198. Define pH, and give the pH of a neutral solution at 25C. 199. Explain and use the pH scale. 2 0 0 . G i v e n [ H 3 O + ] o r [ O H ] , f i n d p H . 2 0 1 . G i v e n p H , f i n d [ H 3 O + ] o r [ O H 202. Describe how an acid-base indicator functions. 203. Explain how to carry out an acid-base titration. 204. Calculate the molarity of a solution from titration data. ] .

Chapter 18: Chemical Equilibrium

  • 205.

    Define chemical equilibrium.

  • 206.

    Explain the nature of the equilibrium constant.

  • 207.

    Write chemical equilibrium expressions and carry out calculations involving them.

  • 208.

    Discuss the factors that disturb equilibrium.

  • 209.

    Discuss conditions under which reactions go to completion.

  • 210.

    Describe the common-ion effect.

  • 211.

    Explain the concept of acid-ionization constants, and write acid-ionization equilibrium expressions.

  • 212.

    Review the ionization constant of water.

  • 213.

    Explain buffering.

  • 214.

    Compare cation and anion hydrolysis.

  • 215.

    Explain what is meant by solubility-product constants, and calculate their values.

  • 216.

    Calculate solubilities using solubility-product constants.

  • 217.

    Carry out calculations to predict whether precipitates will form when solutions are combined.

Chapter 17: Reaction Energy and Reaction Kinetics

  • 218.

    Define temperature, and state the units in which it is measured.

  • 219.

    Define heat and state its units.

  • 220.

    Perform specific-heat calculations.

  • 221.

    Explain heat of reaction, heat of formation, heat of combustion, and enthalpy change.

  • 222.

    Solve problems involving heats of reaction, heats of formation, and heats of combustion.

  • 223.

    Explain the relationship between enthalpy change and the tendency of a reaction to occur.

  • 224.

    Explain the relationship between entropy change and the tendency of a reaction to occur.

  • 225.

    Discuss the concept of free energy, and explain how the value of this quantity is calculated and interpreted.

  • 226.

    Describe the use of free energy change to determine the tendency of a reaction to occur.

  • 227.

    Explain the concept of reaction mechanism.

  • 228.

    Use the collision theory to interpret chemical reactions.

  • 229.

    Define activated complex.

  • 230.

    Relate activation energy to heat of reaction.

  • 231.

    Define chemical kinetics, and explain the two conditions necessary for chemical reactions to occur.

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