Define acid and base according to Arrhenius’s theory of ionization.
Explain the differences between strong and weak acids and bases.
Define and recognize Brønsted acids and bases.
Name compounds that are acids under the Lewis definition but are not acids under the Brønsted definition.
Describe a conjugate acid, a conjugate base, and an amphoteric compound.
Explain the process of neutralization.
Explain how acid rain damages marble structures.
Chapter 16: Acid-Base Titration and pH
197. Describe the self-ionization of water. 198. Define pH, and give the pH of a neutral solution at 25C. 199. Explain and use the pH scale. 2 0 0 . G i v e n [ H 3 O + ] o r [ O H ] , f i n d p H . 2 0 1 . G i v e n p H , f i n d [ H 3 O + ] o r [ O H 202. Describe how an acid-base indicator functions. 203. Explain how to carry out an acid-base titration. 204. Calculate the molarity of a solution from titration data. ] .
Chapter 18: Chemical Equilibrium
Define chemical equilibrium.
Explain the nature of the equilibrium constant.
Write chemical equilibrium expressions and carry out calculations involving them.
Discuss the factors that disturb equilibrium.
Discuss conditions under which reactions go to completion.
Describe the common-ion effect.
Explain the concept of acid-ionization constants, and write acid-ionization equilibrium expressions.
Review the ionization constant of water.
Compare cation and anion hydrolysis.
Explain what is meant by solubility-product constants, and calculate their values.
Calculate solubilities using solubility-product constants.
Carry out calculations to predict whether precipitates will form when solutions are combined.
Chapter 17: Reaction Energy and Reaction Kinetics
Define temperature, and state the units in which it is measured.
Define heat and state its units.
Perform specific-heat calculations.
Explain heat of reaction, heat of formation, heat of combustion, and enthalpy change.
Solve problems involving heats of reaction, heats of formation, and heats of combustion.
Explain the relationship between enthalpy change and the tendency of a reaction to occur.
Explain the relationship between entropy change and the tendency of a reaction to occur.
Discuss the concept of free energy, and explain how the value of this quantity is calculated and interpreted.
Describe the use of free energy change to determine the tendency of a reaction to occur.
Explain the concept of reaction mechanism.
Use the collision theory to interpret chemical reactions.
Define activated complex.
Relate activation energy to heat of reaction.
Define chemical kinetics, and explain the two conditions necessary for chemical reactions to occur.