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Richard F. Grimmett Specialist in International Security - page 13 / 34





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Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2010


Soviet Russia. Marines were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and July to protect the American consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency government and neutrality was issued by the American, Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders in July. In August 7,000 men were landed in Vladivostok and remained until January 1920, as part of an allied occupation force. In September 1918, 5,000 American troops joined the allied intervention force at Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in response to the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and were partly supported by Czarist or Kerensky elements.


Dalmatia. U.S. forces were landed at Trau at the request of Italian authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.


Turkey. Marines from the U.S.S. Arizona were landed to guard the U.S. Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.


Honduras. September 8 to 12. A landing force was sent ashore to maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.


China. March 14. A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.


Guatemala. April 9 to 27. U.S. forces protected the American Legation and other American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.


Russia (Siberia). February 16, 1920, to November 19, 1922. A Marine guard was sent to protect the United States radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.


Panama - Costa Rica. American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.


Turkey. September and October. A landing force was sent ashore with consent of both Greek and Turkish authorities, to protect American lives and property when the Turkish Nationalists entered Smyrna.


China. Between April 1922 and November 1923 marines were landed five times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.


Honduras. February 28 to March 31, September 10 to 15. U.S. forces protected American lives and interests during election hostilities.


China. September. Marines were landed to protect Americans and other foreigners in Shanghai during Chinese factional hostilities.


China. January 15 to August 29. Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in Shanghai brought the landing of American forces to protect lives and property in the International Settlement.


Honduras. April 19 to 21. U.S. forces protected foreigners at La Ceiba during a political upheaval.


Panama. October 12 to 23. Strikes and rent riots led to the landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American interests.


Nicaragua. May 7 to June 5, 1926; August 27, 1926 to January 3, 1933. The coup d’etat of General Chamorro aroused revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect the interests of the United States. United States forces came and went intermittently until January 3, 1933.


China. August and September. The Nationalist attack on Hankow brought the landing of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard was maintained at the consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces captured Kiukiang, naval forces were landed for the protection of foreigners November 4 to 6.

Congressional Research Service


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