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Richard F. Grimmett Specialist in International Security - page 8 / 34

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1856

Panama, Republic of New Grenada. September 19 to 22. U.S. forces landed to protect American interests during an insurrection.

1856

China. October 22 to December 6. U.S. forces landed to protect American interests at Canton during hostilities between the British and the Chinese, and to avenge an assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the United States flag.

1857

Nicaragua. April to May, November to December. In May Commander C.H. Davis of the United States Navy, with some marines, received the surrender of William Walker, who had been attempting to get control of the country, and protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and December of the same year United States vessels Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding’s act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the United States, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement.

1858

Uruguay. January 2 to 27. Forces from two United States warships landed to protect American property during a revolution in Montevideo.

1858

Fiji Islands. October 6 to 16. A marine expedition chastised natives for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.

1858-59

Turkey. The Secretary of State requested a display of naval force along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere “to remind the authorities (of Turkey) of the power of the United States.”

1859

Paraguay. Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River during 1855. Apologies were made after a large display of force.

1859

Mexico. Two hundred United States soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in pursuit of the Mexican bandit Cortina.

1859

China. July 31 to August 2. A naval force landed to protect American interests in Shanghai.

1860

Angola, Portuguese West Africa. March 1. American residents at Kissembo called upon American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with natives.

1860

Colombia (Bay of Panama). September 27 to October 8. Naval forces landed to protect American interests during a revolution.

1863

Japan. July 16. The U.S.S. Wyoming retaliated against a firing on the American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.

1864

Japan. July 14 to August 3. Naval forces protected the United States Minister to Japan when he visited Yedo to negotiate concerning some American claims against Japan, and to make his negotiations easier by impressing the Japanese with American power.

1864

Japan. September 4 to 14. Naval forces of the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands compelled Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already signed.

1865

Panama. March 9 and 10. U.S. forces protected the lives and property of American residents during a revolution.

1866

China. From June 20 to July 7, U.S. forces punished an assault on the American consul at Newchwang.

1866

Mexico. To protect American residents, General Sedgwick and 100 men in November obtained surrender of Matamoras. After three days he was ordered by U.S. Government to withdraw. His act was repudiated by the President.

1867

Nicaragua. Marines occupied Managua and Leon.

Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2010

Congressional Research Service

5

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