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since Freud believed dreams is the royal road to the unconsciousness.   In the process of counselling, sometimes clients begin to imagine that the counsellor is similar to the significant person in the clients’ real life, thus begin transferring their emotions to the counsellor. By analysing transference that occurs, Freud believed that the counsellor will be able to interpret the positive or negative feelings expressed clients.

Often times, clients will feel reluctant to freely discuss or think about an issues or topic. This blockage in the flow of ideas is called resistance. Through analysis of resistance, the counsellor will notice that such resistances bring them to clients’ awareness so that clients will deal with them realistically. Last but not least, interpretation is used all throughout the counselling process whereby using the counsellor expertise and experiences, the counsellor is able to help clients understand better the meaning of past and present events that happen in their life.

SELF-CHECK 2.2

1.

Who is the founder of psychoanalytic approach?

2.

How do psychoanalytic counsellors view clients?

3.

From the psychoanalytic perspective, what is the reason(s) for clients having                    problems in life?

4.

Identify the different ideas proposed by Freud.

5.

What is the goal of counselling according to psychoanalytic approach?

6.

What are the techniques used in psychoanalytic counselling?

Alfred Adler (1870-1937) was the founder of Adlerian approach, also known as Individual psychology. He was a sickly child and had difficult relationship with his younger brother. Against his parents and teachers’ expectation, he rose to the top of his class and went to study medicine at the University of Vienna, later specializing in neurology and psychiatry. Adler wrote his book in 1959 titled Understanding Human Nature which was a bestseller. He wrote, spoke and demonstrated his work in Europe and United States until his death in 1937

2.4   Theory 2: ADLERIAN COUNSELING

Alfred was a colleague of Sigmund Freud, and along with Carl Jung developed the school of psychodynamic thoughts. He disagreed with Freud’s extreme emphasis on biological and deterministic views toward human. Adler proposed a more optimistic, hopeful and positive theory on human development, stressing on subjective feelings and social interest. He focused on unity of personality, believing that humans can only be understood when viewed as complete beings. Humans develop a unique life style that is created by them. They have created their own personality and therefore can choose to

        Alfred Adler

            [1870-1937]

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