Carl Rogers, introduced the ideas of non-directive counselling in his book. Counseling and Psychotherapy published in 1942. Rogers’ theory later evolved into client-centred counselling or client-centred psychotherapy as known today. The approach is applicable to numerous types of counselling, be it individuals, groups, or families. He was dubbed the father of "client-centred therapy” and his approach appeals to many professionals today because of its simple and acceptable ideas which can be easily applied by new counsellors. The job of a counsellor is to reflect the counselee's responses back to him and, thus, set up a catalytic atmosphere of acceptance. Such an environment is supposed to allow the client to get in touch with the innate resources within himself or herself for successfully dealing with life and developing self-esteem.
CARL ROGER’S VIEWS ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
In the person-centred approach, humans are seen as having positive goodness, realistic expectations, and trustworthiness. Humans have a desire to become fully functioning, thus able to live as effectively as possible. According to Rogers, if humans are positively regarded and allowed to develop freely, they will grow to be fully functioning. Because of the positive views towards human nature, Rogers’ approach came to be known as a humanistic approach. According to him, fully functioning persons have the potential to achieve self-actualisation, which refers to using the maximum or highest potential existing in oneself through striving, maintaining and enhancing one’s life experiences. Rogers believed that in order for a healthy self to develop, a person needs unconditional positive regard, which means unconditional love, warmth, respect and acceptance. However, in real life, parents, teachers and peers often offer conditional regards. The person will be accepted, loved or cared for if he or she is good, pretty or clever, to give some examples.
Rogers also proposed that each person has a self, which is central to the being. The self encompasses all values, beliefs and perceptions one has about oneself, acquired through interactions with significant others as one goes through his or her life. As a person grows and develops, he or she becomes aware of the differences between the self and others. A person will develop a real self (what the person is) and an ideal self (what the person hopes to become). Humans always try to maintain consistency between ideal self, true self, and self-image. Self-image is the total subjective perception of one’s body and personality. If a person receives or perceives information from others that are inconsistent with his self-image, incongruency occurs. The incongruent person becomes confused, vulnerable, dissatisfied or seriously maladaptive. A person tend to feel worthy only when fulfilling or conforming to others’ wishes or expectations that might not be congruent with the person’s values, beliefs or perceptions. Incongruencies between the real self and the ideal self makes a person becomes maladjusted, thus developing unhealthy self.