1. Who is the founder of the client-centred approach?
2. What are Carl Rogers’ assumptions of human nature?
3. From the client-centred perspective, what is the reason(s) for clients having
problems in life?
What is the goal of counselling according to the client-centred approach?
What are the techniques used in client-centred counselling?
LEARNING ACTIVITY 2.3
a) Have you ever come across an instance when you felt any
two of your selves were not congruent with each other?
b) Describe the experience and identify how you overcame the
Theories and approaches in counselling can be arranged on a continuum ranging from non-directive approaches to directive approaches.
George Corey, a prominent practicing counsellor and author, identified four classes of therapeutic approaches: The Analytic Approaches, The Experiential and Relationship-Oriented Approaches, The Action Therapies and The System Perspectives.
Psychoanalytic approach emphasises the influence of unconsciousness, the three components of personality and the psychosexual stages on human development.
Freud’s theory is deterministic since he believed personality is determined by some forces that mainly happen during childhood.
His view of human nature is pessimistic, believing that humans are largely influenced by sexual energies and uncontrollable forces.
Adler disagreed with Freud’s emphasis on selfish id and unconsciousness. Adler prefers to view humans in a more positive light, always striving to overcome weaknesses by achieving superiority.
He believed the family constellation and birth order has strong influence on one’s personality and life style.
Rogers disagreed with Freud on psychoanalytic pessimistic views on humans. Rogers believed it is more beneficial to explore conscious thoughts and feelings.
He emphasized non-directive approach and unconditional positive regard within a trusting relationship so that clients will become confident to explore and gain insights to their own experiences, thus becoming more fully functioning.