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involving replacing negative behaviours with more positive behaviour using reinforcement. The counselor guides the client through role-playing and self-monitoring toward correcting negative behaviours. In between, these two ends of the continuum, is the psychoanalytic approach in which the counsellor helps the client work through issues to find the best solution for overcoming the client’s inner conflicts. The counsellor tries to help the client to achieve a compromise between conflicting forces through understanding the nature of the conflicts and dealing with them in a more mature and rational manner.

SELF-CHECK  2.1

                    What is the main difference between directive and non-directive

                    counselling approaches? Give specific examples.

2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF COUNSELLING THEORIES

There are many theories or approaches adopted by counsellors. Different textbooks on counselling theories may emphasise certain theories and ignore others. So, when you read a particular textbook, some theories may be left out. However, most textbooks will discuss the few popular theories which are often-discussed due to their wide acceptance among the counselling practitioners. Also, different authors may classify the various theories differently.  George Corey, a prominent practicing counsellor and author, identified 11 therapeutic approaches in his book Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (2005); and grouped them as follows.

1.

The Analytic Approaches

These are counselling approaches focusing on analysing unconscious motivation, personality development and childhood experiences. Included under this category is:

Psychoanalytic therapy by Sigmund Freud

Adlerian therapy by Alfred Adler.

2.

The Experiential and Relationship-Oriented Approaches

These approaches focus on creating a good relationship between counsellor and client, as well as having good and positive views of human nature. Included in this category is:

The existential approach by Viktor Frankl, Rollo May and Irvin Yalom

Person-centred approach by Carl Rogers

Gestalt therapy by Frederick and Laura Perls

3.

The Action Therapies

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