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These approaches focus on client’s current behaviour and developing a clear plan for changing unproductive behaviour with a new one. Included here are

Reality Therapy by William Glaser

Behaviour Therapy by B.F. Skinner, Arnold Lazarus and Albert Bandura,

Rational Emotive Therapy by Albert Ellis

Cognitive Therapy by A.T. Beck.

4.

The System Perspectives

These approaches stress on the importance of understanding clients in the context of the surrounding, environment, or system. Included in this category are:

The Feminist Therapy and

Family System Therapy.

On the other hand, Stephen Palmer as editor of the book titled Introduction to Counselling and Psychotherapy (2000), classified the various counselling approaches according to the convention of psychoanalytic, cognitive-behavioural and humanistic traditions, with a broad category of ‘others’ for those not necessarily belonging to these three traditions or whose affiliation is disputed. The classification is as follows:

Psychoanalytic Approaches

1.

by Sigmund Freud

2.

by Carl Jung

3.

by Alfred Adler

4.

Melanie Klien

Cognitive-Behavioural Approaches

1.

Behaviour therapy

2.

Rational emotive behaviour therapy

3.

Cognitive therapy

4.

Reality therapy

Humanistic Approaches

1.

Client-centred therapy by Carl Rogers

2.

Gestalt therapy by Frederick and Laura Perls

The issue of which theory is to be used is a highly complex and controversial field. It cannot be denied that the adoption of any one theory will depend on the orientation of the counsellor or practioner. All the theories mentioned are over and above the scope of this introductory course. Only six theories will be discussed briefly. If you intend to look more deeply into the intricacies of particular approaches and the debates between counsellors, it is usually advisable to refer both to traditional literature or original sources and to the latest editions of specialist texts by those representing their theoretical orientation. Look up the founders of each theory, because the main assumptions of their theories are strongly associated with their personal life experiences.

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