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LEARNING ACTIVITY  2.1

        a)   Refer to different resources or textbooks on counselling     

              theories and identify other theories not mentioned here.

              Compare how theses authors have classified these theories.

b)

Read the autobiography of each founder or contributor to  

a theory. Relate how each person’s life history contributed to his or her ideas presented in the theory.

2.3 Theory 2: PSYCHOANALYTIC COUNSELLNG

FOUNDER

Sigmund Freud was a psychiatrist in Vienna. He was the originator of psychoanalysis, introducing new, seemingly outrageous ideas on human behaviour and development. His ideas related mainly to his own self-exploration when he experienced emotional problems during his early 40s. Then, Freud suffered from various illness originated from stress, had many phobias, and dreams which he analysed and tried to find meaning. He examined his own childhood experiences and childhood sexual feelings, on which he based his theories. Freud was highly creative and productive, writing profusely until his works fill 24 volumes. Many of Freud’s early concepts of psychoanalytic principles and techniques have been the foundation of the helping profession and are still used by many professional helpers.

Sigmund Freud

 (1856-1939)

Figure 2.3:

Structures of Personality

                      Ego

    Id

               Superego

BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF HUMAN NATURE

Freud believed humans as basically driven by irrational forces, unconscious motives, and biological drives that mainly evolved during childhood years. The goal of life is mainly focused on gaining pleasure and avoiding pain. Three main ideas of Freud

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