stands with Ilex aquifolium (Holly) as the evergreen component. It nests on the ground in thick cover. It feeds on plant material taken from the ground or the crowns of trees, its seasonally varied diet including needles, shoots and young cones of conifers, leaves, stems and berries of dwarf shrubs, and sedges, horsetails and moss. Chicks feed on insects, suffering high mortality in wet summers. It became extinct in Scotland in the late 18th century, as a result of persecution and habitat loss, but was successfully re-introduced in the 19th century. It is a resident.
Simulated present distribution (AUC = 0·950; k = 0·758)
Simulated late 21st century distribution (R = 0·62; O = 0·57)
This species breeds principally where annual temperature sum is 200 – 1500 degree days above 5°C, coldest month mean temperature is < 2°C and there is little or no seasonal moisture deficiency (AET/PET ≥ 0·9). The oceanic south-west of its range,