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Notes and references

CODESRIA recommends the use of endnotes. Avoid using footnotes. If your word processor cannot create endnotes, use square brackets and numbers. Place all notes at the end of the work, before the bibliography or list of references, unless your work is a book by several authors, in which case place notes at the ends of chapters. Begin numbering from 1 for every chapter. Indicate notes in the text by superscript figures outside the punctuation, thus".4" or preferably with parentheses or square brackets e.g. (4), [4], the typesetter will convert to superscript. Use Arabic numerals rather than roman.

Restrict notes to explanatory statements that develop an idea or expand a quotation, where to do so in the text would disturb the balance. When giving references, use the Harvard (author–date) system.

The Harvard Reference System

CODESRIA strongly recommends this referencing system which is easy to use for every reader. The system requires you to cite the author's surname, the year of publication, and the page reference immediately after the quoted material, e.g.: ‘Alongside this normative perspective that emphasizes the centrality of the West in the formation of modernity, there are alternative approaches to modernity’ (Kane 2003:5).

No comma is needed after author’s name (not ‘Kane, 2003’). Be consist- ent with punctuations. For example, where a colon is used after year of publication, either put a space before the page numbers (‘Amin 2002: 65’) or not (‘Amin 2002:65’). Separate publications by different authors by semicolons (‘Amin 2002; Diaw 1994’) and the same author’s by a comma (‘Mkandawire 1999, 2002’).

With this system it is essential that the bibliography or references list every work cited by you in the text. Where there are two or more works by one author in the same year, distinguish them as by use of letters of the alpha- bet (e.g. Olukoshi 1998a, 1998b, etc.). Type the bibliography or reference list in the order: author, initials, date, title, place of publication, publisher (see pp. 20–21 for a sample bibliography).


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