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CODESRIA Guide for Authors

Note Reference System

If you cannot use the Harvard system, and use note references instead, you must give full details of author (with initials), book or article title, place of publication, publisher, date and page reference. Use commas between elements of the reference, rather than full stops.

A book should be referred to as, for example:

T. Zeleza, A Modern Economic History of Africa. Volume I: The Nineteenth Century, Dakar, CODESRIA, 1993, pp. 56–7.

A Journal article should be referred to as, for example:

O.D., Selolwane, ‘Monopoly Politikos: How Botswana’s Opposition Parties Have Helped Sustain One-Party Dominance’, African Sociological Review, 2002, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 68–90.

If you refer again in the notes to one of these works in the same chapter, you may do so either by repeating the author's surname and then using op. cit. (the work cited) or using ibid. (in the same place) on its own, if it was the last work to be cited, or by repeating the author's surname and the title of the book or article (or a shortened form of it). Do not mix these two systems – use one or the other. Never carry the use of op. cit. or ibid. or shortened titles over from one chapter to another; always give full biblio- graphical details in the notes the first time a work is cited in each chapter. If you are the editor of a multi-authored book, you must ensure that all contributors use the same system of notes and references. Do not forget to type or print out the notes and bibliography double-spaced.

Is It ‘Bibliography’ or ‘References’?

‘References’ refer only to the sources quoted or cited in your text. ‘Bibli- ography’ on the other hand, includes works related to the theme under investigation, which you may have used but may not have cited directly. This distinction notwithstanding, it is commonplace to use the two labels ‘references’ and ‘bibliography’ interchangeably, In principle however, bibliographies retain their traditional definition as lists of works on a given subject, the kind of comprehensive but focused guide to readers prepared by librarians and specialists on given disciplines and fields of study. Until not so long ago, it was considered a mark of good scholar- ship and contribution to knowledge for scholars to demonstrate expertise in a given area by providing a comprehensive list or ‘bibliography’ of all previously published material as well. Today, emphasis seems more on


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