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Notes and References

Rashid, Ishmail, 1997, ‘Subaltern Reactions: Lumpens, Students and the Left’, Africa Development, Vol. XXII, Nos. 3&4, pp.19–43.

D. Citing online works

In addition to information necessary for printed works, include full URL location and the date work was last accessed, if applicable.

Adeya, N., 2001, Information and Communication Technologies in Africa: A Review and Selective Annotated Bibliography. (http://www.inasp.org.uk/ pubs/ict/index.html). 30 May 2003.

If a publication is available in both print and online cite full publishing information and include: ‘Available online at [url]’. For example,

Moudileno, L., 2003, Littératures africaines francophones des années 1980 et 1990, Dakar: CODESRIA. Available online at http://www.codesria.org/Links/Publications/monographs/ Moudileno.pdf


If you are using the preferred Harvard system of referencing, type bibli- ography or reference entries in the following order:

Ake, C., 2001, The Feasibility of Democracy in Africa, Dakar: CODESRIA.

If you are using the note reference system and your book also has a bibliography, entries should follow the style of the note references, i.e. if notes are presented with the date after the place of publication and publisher, retain this order in the bibliography. So, following the note reference style given on p. 16, the corresponding reference entry would read:

Diop, M.C., Senegal: Essays in Statecraft, Dakar, CODESRIA, 1994.

Type or print out the bibliography double-spaced in strict alphabetical order. Check dates carefully for consistency with text references, to avoid time-consuming queries at copy-editing stage.

Arrange books and articles by a single author in date order. You may replace the author’s name by using a double en rule (see the example below). You can indicate this by typing a consistent number of hyphens

  • more than two to distinguish it from an en rule – and the typesetter can

then convert to an em rule by making one global command. CODESRIA prefers that the author's name is repeated.


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