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chapter 14 - Drinking Water treatment and Distribution

One California agency is making direct efforts to begin the training process of the youth for jobs of the future. LADWP has developed an Infrastructure Academy in which they work with local high schools to recruit 10th-graders to “job shadow” the construction field as 11th- and 12th-graders. LADWP supplies funds to the schools with the ultimate goal of creating a training plan designed by employees and instructors.

In November 2006, CDPH introduced the Expense Reimbursement Grant Program for small water system operators. This program provides funding for small water system operators to receive reimbursement for training taken to maintain and advance their operator certification levels.

Treatment Technologies for Small Water Systems

Providing safe and affordable drinking water is still a significant challenge for small water systems. Economies of scale typically become more limited for the small system size categories, resulting in per-household costs for compliance with new regulations that can be over four-fold higher than those for medium to large water systems (Fed Regist., 2006). Advances have been made in the effective use of point-of-use (POU) and point-of-entry (POE) technologies for certain contaminants under controlled circumstances for some small drinking water systems (Cadmus Group, 2006). POU devices are those that treat water at the location it is to be consumed, such as at the tap or a drinking fountain. POE devices are those that treat all of the water entering a home or building, not just that which is consumed. POE technologies would treat all water that a consumer comes in contact with, such as through bathing and handwashing, while a POU will only provide treated water at one tap intended for drinking and cooking (usually installed in the kitchen). The California SDWA allows the consideration and approval of POE for compliance with drinking water standards where it can be demonstrated that centralized treatment (at the well head or surface water intake) is not economically feasible. However, installation of POU for compliance with drinking water standards by a public water system is not yet allowed under the California SDWA and regulations.

New treatment technologies are often needed to address chemical contaminants that affect small water systems - technologies that can be cost-effective and do not require extensive operator attention. Proposition 50 has provided funding for demonstration of such technologies. As new technologies are proposed to treat water to drinking water standards, CDPH must review and approve these technologies, using staff dedicated to these technical aspects of drinking water treatment reviews. This would include reviews of studies demonstrating the efficacy of the use of POU/POE for compliance with some MCLs.

Treatment Residuals Disposal

In many areas, treatment options for contaminants are limited due to residual disposal issues. For example, the disposal of brine from ion exchange and reverse osmosis

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