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chapter 14 - Drinking Water treatment and Distribution

Contents

Chapter 14. Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution ..................................... 14-5 Drinking Water Treatment in California .................................................................. 14-8 Public Health.................................................................................................... 14-8 Fluoridation ...................................................................................................... 14-9 Regulation ...................................................................................................... 14-10 New Technology .............................................................................................14-11 Desalination.................................................................................................... 14-12 Drinking Water Distribution in California ............................................................. 14-13 Potential Benefits of Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution......................... 14-15 Potential Costs of Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution............................. 14-16 Major Issues Facing Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution......................... 14-20 Deteriorating Infrastructure............................................................................ 14-20 Source Water Protection................................................................................. 14-20 Inadequate Financial Assistance to Address Water Treatment and Infrastructure Issues ................................................................................ 14-21 Regionalization/Consolidation....................................................................... 14-22 Environmental Justice .................................................................................... 14-22 Impact of Climate Change ............................................................................. 14-23 Efficient Use of Water .................................................................................... 14-23 Maintaining a Trained Workforce .................................................................. 14-24 Treatment Technologies for Small Water Systems......................................... 14-25 Treatment Residuals Disposal........................................................................ 14-25 Security of Drinking Water Facilities............................................................. 14-26 Existing and Emerging Contaminants............................................................ 14-27 Recommendations.................................................................................................. 14-27 References.............................................................................................................. 14-30 Legal............................................................................................................... 14-31 Web sites ........................................................................................................ 14-32

Figures Figure 14-1 Public water system class by percent of systems.................................... 14-6

Tables Table 14-1 Public water systems in California by class.............................................. 14-5 Table 14-2 Number and type of CPUC-regulated water agencies.............................. 14-7 Table 14-3 Treatment plants on California public water system sources ................... 14-9 Table 14-4 Fluoridation in California ....................................................................... 14-10 Table 14-5 Metropolitan Water District of Southern California treated water rate

history ..................................................................................................... 14-17 Table 14-6 Monthly water charges in California by region...................................... 14-18 Table 14-7 Water charges as a share of median household income, 2004-2006....... 14-19 Table 14-8 California Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: Capitalization Grants

from the USEPA...................................................................................... 14-21

caLifoRnia WateR PLan | update 2009

14-3

iMPRove WateR QuaLitY

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