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Analyze Demographic and Social Factors

Demography: archaeological surveys have mapped the size and distribution of rural and urban population centers allowing an extrapolation of population size and density in antiquity.

By combining the data on demography, water resources, and levels of agricultural activity, the “bearing capacity” of the land can be determined in combination with evidence of positive external contact (trade, travel) and negative external contact (invasion, warfare).

Social Structure and Cultural Identity: social mechanisms and phenomena (religious practices, introduction of monarchy) affect population, economic development, and settlement patterns.

Contact with other cultures can lead to integration of new ideas, syncretism, or negative reactions emphasizing local models or customs as a cultural defense mechanism

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