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An LMF-based Web Service for Accessing WordNet-type Semantic Lexicons

Bora Savas§, Yoshihiko Hayashi§, Monica Monachini, Claudia Soria, Nicoletta Calzolari

§Graduate School of Language and Culture, Osaka University 1-8 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, 5600043, Japan bsavas@gs.lang.osaka-u.ac.jp, hayashi@lang.osaka-u.ac.jp Istituto di Linguistica Computazionale ”A. Zampolli”, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1 – 56126 Pisa, Italy {monica.monachini, claudia.soria, nicoletta.calzolari}@ilc.cnr.it

Abstract

This paper describes a Web service for accessing WordNet-type semantic lexicons. The central idea behind the service design is: given a query, the primary functionality of lexicon access is to present a partial lexicon by extracting the relevant part of the target lexicon. Based on this idea, we implemented the system as a RESTful Web service whose input query is specified by the access URI and whose output is presented in a standardized XML data format. LMF, an ISO standard for modeling lexicons, plays the most prominent role: the access URI pattern basically reflects the lexicon structure as defined by LMF; the access results are rendered based on Wordnet-LMF, which is a version of LMF XML-serialization. The Web service currently provides accesses to Princeton WordNet, Japanese WordNet, as well as the EDR Electronic Dictionary as a trial. To accommodate the EDR dictionary within the same framework, we modeled it also as a WordNet-type semantic lexicon. This paper thus argues possible alternatives to model innately bilingual/multilingual lexicons like EDR with LMF, and proposes possible revisions to Wordnet-LMF.

1. Introduction

Although not every language resource is suitable for net- worked query-based access, many types of language re- sources are successfully wrapped as Web services, opening a new dimension for dissemination and utilization of lan- guage resources and technologies. Among them, lexical re- source such as a semantic lexicon is an excellent target for the Web servicization, because the issues associated with language resources, including intellectual property right is- sue, can be solved/remedied by this solution.

Given this trend as the background, this paper describes a Web service for accessing WordNet-type semantic lexi- cons. The central idea behind the service design is: given a query, the primary functionality of lexicon access is to present a partial lexicon by extracting the relevant part of the target lexicon. Based on this idea, we implemented the system as a RESTful Web service (Richardson and Ruby, 2007) whose input (query) is specified by the access URI and whose output is represented by a standardized XML data format.

LMF (Lexical Markup Framework) (Francopoulo et al., 2008), an ISO standard (ISO 24613, 2008) for modeling lexicons, plays the most prominent role: the access URI pattern basically reflects the lexicon structure as defined by LMF; the access results are rendered based on Wordnet- LMF (Soria et al., 2009) XML schema, which is a version of LMF XML-serialization.

The Web service currently provides access to Princeton WordNet 3.0 (Fellbaum, 1998) as well as Japanese Word- Net 0.9 (Bond et al., 2008). This paper also describes our trial to encode the EDR Electronic Dictionary (Yokoi, 1995; EDR, 2007) also as a WordNet-type semantic lexi- con. This enables us to implement the access service by the same framework. This trial, on the other hand, revealed an issue in modeling innately bilingual/multilingual lexicons

like EDR with LMF. This paper thus argues possible alter- natives to the modeling, and proposes possible revisions to Wordnet-LMF.

  • 2.

    Web Servicizing Language Resources

    • 2.1.

      Reasons to Web Servicize Language Resources

The notion of service in the world of software has been be- coming more important as illuminated by the terms such as SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) or SaaS (Software as a Service). In parallel with this, service-oriented language in- frastructures to push forward the notion of ”LRaaS” (Lan- guage Resources as a Service) have come to the front. With a carefully designed and adequately operated service- oriented language infrastructure:

  • More non-expert can have accesses to language re- sources (LR) and language technologies (LT) through usable access interfaces (APIs);

  • Complicated intellectual property right issues can be (partly) remedied by the access control policies and mechanisms maintained by the service infrastructure;

    • A virtual language resource can be realized as a lan- guage service through useful combination of the exist- ing language services, thanks to Web service workflow technology.

      • 2.2.

        Language Service Infrastructure and Web APIs

The Language Grid (Ishida, 2006; Murakami et al., 2010) is a multilingual language service infrastructure on the In- ternet whose primary goal is to provide solutions enabling the above mentioned environment. Envisaged majority of the users are non LR/LT experts who are involved in the

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