Presented at the 18th Annual Conference of the Global Awareness Society International - May 2009
Globalization Challenges in Central Asia
Jay Nathan, Ph.D. St. John's University, Queens, New York firstname.lastname@example.org
Economic globalization is the global integration of goods, technology, labor, information, and capital; that is, firms implement global strategies, which link and coordinate their international activities on a worldwide basis. It is a process based on change, which can lead Central Asian countries to the globalization of their operations: political, technology, market, cost and competitive. Globalization is also international business, which includes any activity or transaction for monetary gain, and it considers the entire world as a single marketplace. Central Asian countries, despite their globalization challenges, can chalk out a path for global engagement with proper management of their resources, especially oil and gas.
Hout, Porter, and Rudden (Harvard Business Review, 1982) explain how global companies win out. The dollar value of total world exports in 1996 was greater than the gross national product of every nation in the world except United States. Globalization process on one hand creates openness to international trade, and an increased flow of capital, goods, people, services, and information across nations. However, the positive results of globalization are distributed unevenly due to lack of openness characterized by the absence of democracy, free markets systems, rule of law, quality of life and internationalization. Critiques argue that trade openness brings little prosperity to the host developing country and greater benefits to MNCs and their home countries. This paper prefers responsible globalization as discussed in 1999 World Economic Forum. Pointing fingers at the advanced industrial countries and multinational corporations (MNCs) for the income inequality, lack of quality of life, and the underdevelopment of human capacity in poor countries is not the position taken by this author.
How Central Asia’s Present Competes with Past Values Central Asian republics are bounded by Russia in the north, China in the east, the Caspian Sea in the west, and Iron and Afghanistan in the South. The largest land mass is occupied by the Republic of Kazakhstan; It has almost 1,177 mi (1,894 km) of coastline on the Caspian Sea. Kazakhstan is slightly more than twice the size of Texas. The territory is mostly steppe land with hilly plains and plateaus.