coids. More recently, animal models have shown that catecholamines, glucocorticoids, and other stress hor- mones influence multiple aspects of the tumor microen- vironment, including: (1) the alteration of numerous aspects of immune function, (2) the promotion of
41 tumor cell growth, (3) the migration and invasive capacity of cancer cells, (4) the stimulation of angio- genesis by the induction of pro-angiogenic cytokine production, and (5) the activation of oncogenic viruses (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Effects of stress-associated factors on the tumor microenvironment Reprinted with permission from Antoni et al. 41
Am J Prev Med 2008;35(2S)