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Travel Time Savings

Fully internalized and estimated by means of perceived benefit approach. These benefits comprise travel time difference between modes, waiting time, and trip time reliability

Vehicle Operating Costs

Resource cost with cost corrections. Part of the costs is directly perceived by users, such as fuel costs. Additional costs, such as vehicle operating, and other costs usually considered as fixed are included as a result of a TDM strategy that builds aw

Health Benefits of Cycling and Walking

Car Parking

Resource cost with the following correction: half are internal half are included in net benefits to TDM users walking benefits are 2.5 times of cycling Resource cost with cost corrections that includes: car parking cost land use cost parking facility capital costs security costs Resource cost correction assumption: car users perceive 75% of total resource cost

Public Transport Fares

Resource cost with cost corrections. Fares are a financial transfer from users to operators, but perceived as a cost by users. Considered as an externality. Resource cost with cost corrections. The corrections are:

Congestion Reduction

Cycle Operating Costs

vehicle operating cost savings equal to 7% of total travel time decongestion benefits Discount the effect of induced travel demand of TDM strategy using a 50% factor Note: road system benefits are negligible and do not enter into cost correction ad additional benefit Resource cost with cost corrections. The corrections is set to zero when accounting for additional accident risks by assuming increasing traffic calming effects

Walking Costs

Same as cycling

Resource cost with cost corrections, comprised of three parts:

Accident Costs – Car

1 - Internal perceived costs (to TDM user); 2 - Internal costs not perceived with cost corrections 3 - Externality cost born by society (hospital, loss productivity) Note: Internal perceived cost savings are equal to 50-66% of accident resource costs

Public Transport Operating Cost

Only included as a cost if the TDM strategy results in an increase in demand high enough to warrant additional infrastructure or operating costs

Environmental Externalities

Estimated as the sum of all effects including local air, noise, and water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. These benefits enter only in short-run evaluations

Table 1 New Zealand Transfund TDM Benefits and Costs

New Zealand Transfund Theoretical Framework and Evaluation Procedure

The overall rationale for developing the Transfund evaluation approach to TDM is to justify funding sustainability while providing an evaluation framework consistent with what was used to evaluate highway and transit projects. The evaluation approach is based on a cost benefit analysis framework to allow a comparison with other types of


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