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The reduction in driving and walking instead provides participants reported benefits including financial rewards, better walking facilities, and provides benefits of exercise.

(g) Congestion Reduction – These benefits derive from reduced urban-peak vehicle travel. This cost reflects the delay that each additional vehicle imposes on other vehicle users, the avoided costs of increasing roadway capacity, or the drawbacks to other consumers who forego urban-peak trips because they are discouraged by congestion. The One-Less-Car program reportedly reduces the average mix of personal travel which saves an average of 7.5¢ per vehicle-mile traveled, and the Vanpooling-To-Senior-Softball- Games project saves 3¢ per vehicle-mile traveled. Also the Roosevelt High School project reduces the urban-peak bus travel, which provides 40¢ per vehicle-mile in congestion reduction benefits.

(h) Safety, Security and Health – Shifts from driving to transit help reduce the total traffic risk per passenger mile while shifting to walking and cycling improves public health and provides fitness. Health impacts are significant, but difficult to quantify[25]. About 10 times as many people die from cardiovascular-related illnesses as from vehicle collisions, so if shifts from driving to non-motorized travel provide even modest reductions in such diseases, their health benefits are comparable to large reductions in crashes. This analysis assigns a 5¢-per-mile of reduced driving to those trips that shift to an alternative mode that involves active transportation, including transit trips that involve a cycling or walking link. The report however considers only the advantages of walking and cycling and does not analyze the risks involved with the same. Reduced automobile travel reduces the total person-miles of travel which helps in reducing the crash rate. The average crash cost ranges from about 5¢ to 15¢ per vehicle-mile, which can be saved due to the reduced automobile travel.

(i) Energy and Emissions – Motor vehicle traffic causes air, noise and water pollution and also economic external costs due to increased fuel consumption. The VTPI Transportation Costs and Benefit Analysis[12] gives a table which shows the middle range estimates of air pollution costs per urban vehicle-mile.

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