Pollution cost per mile
Auto cost( cents)
Diesel bus cost (cents) 10 10 1 4 25
Table 3 Pollution Costs
Victoria Transport Policy Institute
Each program was checked to determine if it meets certain criteria, and the benefits and costs were also calculated.
(a) Economic Development – The economic goals to be achieved are measured in terms of employment, income, business activity, etc. Shift of expenditures from fuel to more locally produced goods, reduced vehicle travel, which in turn helps in reduced congestion delay and parking cost savings, and efficient land use, all contribute towards economic productivity.
(b) Equity Impacts – The two types of equity impacts considered in the study are Horizontal Equity (which considers whether people are treated equally) and Vertical Equity (which allows allocation of costs between different income classes and adopts policies to assist economically, socially or physically disabled people).
(c) Stakeholders and Public Response – The responses given by program participants, staff, the general public, media, etc., as to whether they considered the program effective and beneficial are considered in the study.
Hayward “Heavy Up” Promotion Evaluation- San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART)
The Hayward “Heavy up” Promotion is a transit oriented marketing program developed
by BART, California, to increase transit ridership. coordinating an advertising and promotional campaign
The marketing effort involved using television, newspaper and
direct mail. A objective was element.
study was commissioned to assess the efficacy of this to assess the Return of Investment (ROI) associated
program. The key with a direct mail