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build” solution to increase use of existing public transport, cycling and walking assets and to defer the demand for future road assets. The funding submission process was successful with $1.2 million dollars being allocated to the project.

TDM Strategies

The study was motivated by the premise that travel behavioral change can be brought about by educating individuals separately about the costs and benefits associated with

each mode. methods to

This strategy, termed individualized alter travel behavior that reduces one

marketing, comprises motivational of the major presumed constraints

associated with similar promotional efforts: the effectiveness time unless the message is continually reinforced.





Program Evaluation

Benefits, costs and transfers are all quantified in three different contexts- socio-economic, public sector finance and private user. Based on the applicability of monetary values, especially for social and environmental impacts, and the derivation and application of implicit or explicit weighting schemes for various components, the costs and benefits can be incorporated into a single evaluation framework.

There are two costs associated with this program: setting up the individualized marketing and its continued support, and the cost of improving transit facilities. The benefits are quantified and classified into the following categories:

  • Travel Time and Transportation Related Benefits to the User – These include benefits from switching to public transit, cycling costs, walking costs, public transit fares, and the effect of reduced/increased travel times. Travel time costs are estimated based on certain standardized procedures, but the value that is attributed to travel time might vary from person to person and depend on the kind of employment. Different values attributed to travel time make the overall benefit cost ratio different. A value of zero is taken as the base case and then different values are attributed to the travel time and the benefits in each case are quantified.

  • User Exposure to Air Pollutants – There may be an aversion to cycling and walking in heavy traffic owing to vehicle emissions. Research established that car-occupants absorb much higher levels of exhaust pollution than cyclists, walkers or bus passengers (ETA, 1997) [27]. In this exercise, it is stated that this information is likely to have reinforced the substitution for more distant destinations for some trips. Changes in user exposure to air pollution have not been quantified or valued in this evaluation, but it is important to acknowledge that such changes represent a negative impact for those who now choose to walk, cycle or catch public transport (Most reports give numerical values to the air


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