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emission levels making them quantifiable also. Hence, benefits are in terms of reduced emission levels and lower pollutant levels).

  • Road Trauma – The report states that the road trauma impacts of changes in travel behavior have two principal components:

    • i.

      A reduction in road trauma involving motor vehicles; and,

    • ii.

      An increase in road trauma involving cyclists and walkers.

Health and Fitness – Substituting more active modes of transport (such as cycling and walking) for car driving improves the health and fitness of people

who make that change. made of the magnitude framework suitable for

This has of some adoption

been well documented and estimates can be

of in

the impacts, but not generally within a

socio-economic

evaluation.

There

has,

however,

been

useful

quantification

of

increased

life

expectancy

due

to

cycling

activity. year lost accident

Hillman (1997) has estimated that, in the United Kingdom, for every life as a result of increased cycling (bearing in mind that cycling has a higher rate than motorized modes), 20 life years are gained through improved

health and fitness. Assuming the 20:1 ratio can be applied resulting from increased cycle

that the same to the fatality use.

relativity is

appropriate

in Australia,

component

(4%) of the

road trauma

  • Congestion Costs – This is an important part of the evaluation procedure. There are different conditions associated with congestion:

      • i.

        Marginal cost always exceeds average cost; the cost imposed by one more car exceeds the cost experienced by each car already on the road;

      • ii.

        Marginal cost increases with traffic volume - each extra car imposes successively higher costs; and,

    • iii.

      Most congestion costs (66% in Melbourne), across the whole road network imposed by the marginal vehicle are imposed on other road users.

Evaluations are carried out for socio-economic, financial evaluation for public agencies and are carried over horizons of 10 and 30 years. Even on the most conservative assumption in the central evaluation, an investment of $1.3 million in individualized marketing in South Perth would produce benefits of $16.8 million (present value) over 10 years, with a benefit-cost ratio of nearly 13:1. ; including the anticipated benefits through mortality reduction increases the BCR (Benefit Cost Ratio) to 15:1.

The report concludes that individualized marketing has been demonstrated to be an effective technique, in South Perth, for changing travel behavior and can deliver benefits that substantially exceed the direct and indirect costs. Using a methodology and values consistent with the evaluation of road projects, the socioeconomic benefits of individualized marketing for South Perth exceeded the costs by a factor of between 11:1 and 13:1, over 10 years, and 12.5:1 to 15:1 over 30 years. These benefit-cost ratios are much higher than those of investments in metropolitan road infrastructure. However, for small increments of travel time, the maximum possible value consistent with the results

27

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