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  • Transit service improvements; and,

  • Other interventions affecting the cost of driving or modal access and travel time.

These strategies often integrate both incentives and disincentives. The latter are usually defined as “sticks” and comprise actions geared at directly influencing the cost of driving, such as increased auto user charges, parking pricing, and traffic calming.

All other strategies that are designed to enhance voluntary behavior changes are defined as “carrots” and usually consist of measures geared either at increasing the knowledge of alternative modes and programs or at internalizing some of the costs associated to driving that would otherwise be borne by others. Examples of soft program initiatives include:

  • Travel Planning;

  • Personalized Marketing;

  • Flexible Work Hours;

  • Telecommuting;

  • Guaranteed Ride Home Programs; and,

  • Discount for Walking and/or Cycling Gear.

Although these programs do not directly affect the cost of using a mode, they tend to impact travel behavior when part of a program consists of hard measures. Generally, it is not possible to directly estimate a prior change in travel behavior of these TDM strategies.

The literature review uncovered that the general trend to evaluation is one that relies on culling information from a variety of reports and evaluation analyses to produce a table of diversion rates to then be used to estimate trip change behavior. This approach is followed by the New Zealand Travel Behavior Change Guidance and by the U.K. Department of Transportation Smarter Choice Program.

In this report, the approach to evaluate the impact of soft programs on travel behavior relies on an econometric analysis of the relationship between hard and soft programs. Starting with the assumption that voluntary travel behavior initiatives lead to change only in the presence of hard programs, the impact of the following “carrot” initiatives is considered:

  • Program Promotion;

  • Flexible Work Hours;

  • Telecommuting;

  • Guaranteed Ride Home Programs; and,

  • Presence of Amenities (restaurants, ATMs, childcare).

The impact analysis is conducted by building a regression equation where each of these programs enters into an empirical equation estimating the change in ridership as an


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