Vehicle purchase, insurance and other charges
Maintenance and repair costs
Value of travel time based on prevailing wage rate Direct user property damage, personal injury, death
Property damage, personal injury, death imposed on others
Average car parking cost
Land use, capital costs
Incremental travel time delay and increased fuel consumption
Cost of major pollutants: Hydro Carbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrous Oxides (NOx).
Includes noise, water and waste (vehicle parts disposal) opportunity cost land devoted to roads
Includes costs related to barrier effects, equity, diversity, and other resource externalities
Table 5 SOV Cost Externalities
As it will be seen in the next section dealing with the model application, this set of externalities can be expanded or contracted within the sketch planning tool. This grants flexibility to the users by allowing the inclusion or exclusion of given externalities, depending on the program being evaluated or the objectives to be reached.
Evaluation Method: Per Passenger-Trip Average Annualized Benefits
In this final step, the impact measures are used within an evaluation approach to determine program effectiveness. The evaluation follows established guidelines that fall within a benefit/cost analysis framework that ultimately prices out the value of a single- vehicle trip diverted from the network. Given that the objective of most (if not all) TDM