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Vehicle Ownership

Vehicle purchase, insurance and other charges

Internal-Fixed

Vehicle Operation

Maintenance and repair costs

Internal-Variable

Travel Time

Value of travel time based on prevailing wage rate Direct user property damage, personal injury, death

Internal-Variable

Internal Crash

Internal-Variable

External Crash

Property damage, personal injury, death imposed on others

External

Internal Parking

Average car parking cost

Internal-Fixed

External Parking

Land use, capital costs

External

Congestion

Incremental travel time delay and increased fuel consumption

External

Air Pollution

Cost of major pollutants: Hydro Carbons (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrous Oxides (NOx).

External

Other Pollution

Includes noise, water and waste (vehicle parts disposal) opportunity cost land devoted to roads

External

Land Use

External

Other Externalities

Includes costs related to barrier effects, equity, diversity, and other resource externalities

External

Costs

Description

Type

Table 5 SOV Cost Externalities

As it will be seen in the next section dealing with the model application, this set of externalities can be expanded or contracted within the sketch planning tool. This grants flexibility to the users by allowing the inclusion or exclusion of given externalities, depending on the program being evaluated or the objectives to be reached.

Evaluation Method: Per Passenger-Trip Average Annualized Benefits

In this final step, the impact measures are used within an evaluation approach to determine program effectiveness. The evaluation follows established guidelines that fall within a benefit/cost analysis framework that ultimately prices out the value of a single- vehicle trip diverted from the network. Given that the objective of most (if not all) TDM

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